The effect of caudal vs intravenous morphine on early extubation and postoperative analgesic requirements for stage 2 and 3 single-ventricle palliation: a double blind randomized trial
ABSTRACT High-dose single-shot caudal morphine has been postulated to facilitate early extubation and to lower initial analgesic requirements after staged single-ventricle (SV) palliation.
With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed parental consent, 64 SV children aged 75-1667 days were randomized to pre-incisional caudal morphine-bupivacaine (100 μg·kg(-1) morphine (concentration 0.1%), mixed with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, total 1 ml·kg(-1)) and postcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) intravenous (IV) droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active caudal group') or pre-incisional caudal saline (1 ml·kg(-1)) and post-CPB IV morphine (150 μg·kg(-1)) with droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active IV group'). Assignment remained concealed from families and the care teams throughout the trial. Early extubation failure rates (primary or reintubation within 24 h), time to first postoperative rescue morphine analgesia, and 12-h postoperative morphine requirements were assessed for extubated patients.
Thirty-one (12 stage 2) SV patients received caudal morphine and 32 (15 stage 2) received IV morphine. Extubation failure rates were 6/31 (19%) for caudal and 5/32 (16%) for IV morphine. For successfully extubated patients (n = 54), active caudal treatment significantly delayed the need for postoperative rescue morphine in stage 3 patients (P = 0.02) but not in stage 2 patients (P = 0.189) (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with LogRank test). The reduction in 12-h postoperative morphine requirements with active caudal treatment did not reach significance (P = 0.085) but morphine requirements were significantly higher for stage 2 compared with stage 3 patients (P < 0.001) (two-way anova in n = 50 extubated patients).
High-dose caudal morphine with bupivacaine delayed the need for rescue morphine analgesia in stage 3 patients. All stage 2 patients required early rescue morphine and had significantly higher postoperative 12-h morphine requirements than stage 3 patients. Early extubation is feasible for the majority of stage 2 and 3 SV patients regardless of analgesic regimen. The study was underpowered to assess differences in extubation failure rates.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article provides a comprehensive, up to date summary of the effects of volatile, gaseous, and intravenous anesthetics and opioid agonists on ventilatory control. Emphasis is placed on data from human studies. Further mechanistic insights are provided by in vivo and in vitro data from other mammalian species. The focus is on the effects of clinically relevant agonist concentrations and studies using pharmacological, that is, supraclinical agonist concentrations are de-emphasized or excluded. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2281-2367, 2012.10/2012; 2(4):2281-2367. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c100061
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuraxial drugs provide robust pain control, have the potential to improve outcomes, and are an important component of the perioperative care of children. Opioids or clonidine improves analgesia when added to perioperative epidural infusions; analgesia is significantly prolonged by the addition of clonidine, ketamine, neostigmine, or tramadol to single-shot caudal injections of local anesthetic; and neonatal intrathecal anesthesia/analgesia is increasing in some centers. However, it is difficult to determine the relative risk-benefit of different techniques and drugs without detailed and sensitive data related to analgesia requirements, side effects, and follow-up. Current data related to benefits and complications in neonates and infants are summarized, but variability in current neuraxial drug use reflects the relative lack of high-quality evidence. Recent preclinical reports of adverse effects of general anesthetics on the developing brain have increased awareness of the potential benefit of neuraxial anesthesia/analgesia to avoid or reduce general anesthetic dose requirements. However, the developing spinal cord is also vulnerable to drug-related toxicity, and although there are well-established preclinical models and criteria for assessing spinal cord toxicity in adult animals, until recently there had been no systematic evaluation during early life. Therefore, in the second half of this review, we present preclinical data evaluating age-dependent changes in the pharmacodynamic response to different spinal analgesics, and recent studies evaluating spinal toxicity in specific developmental models. Finally, we advocate use of neuraxial drugs with the widest demonstrable safety margin and suggest minimum standards for preclinical evaluation before adoption of new analgesics or preparations into routine clinical practice.Anesthesia and analgesia 07/2012; 115(3):638-62. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e31826253f2 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Historically, droperidol was commonly used for postoperative sedation of critically ill children. A FDA black box warning regarding its arrhythmogenic potential greatly reduced its use. We hypothesized that administration of neuroleptic dose droperidol during volatile anesthesia would transiently prolong the corrected QT interval (QTc) in patients undergoing single ventricle palliation. As part of a prospective study in children undergoing stage 2 or 3 single ventricle palliation, we recorded electrocardiograms preoperatively, after induction of volatile anesthesia, immediately after completion of 30 min intravenous infusion of 75 mcg/kg droperidol, and shortly after arrival in the cardiac intensive care unit. Mean absolute QT intervals and heart rate data were analyzed in a blinded fashion and the longest QT interval was determined. QT intervals were corrected for heart rate (QTc) with the Bazett and Friderici formulae. Any perioperative arrhythmias were recorded. Complete data were available for 62 patients. Volatile anesthesia was associated with significant prolongation of the QTc interval. Administration of droperidol after cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with further significant QTc prolongation. All QTc changes were transient and the postoperative QTc, while still prolonged relative to baseline, was significantly shorter than the QTc immediately postdroperidol. No episodes of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) or ventricular arrhythmias were observed. The administration of a neuroleptic dose of droperidol during volatile anesthesia in patients undergoing single ventricle palliation was associated with a significant prolongation of QTc, which was transient and did not result in TdP or other ventricular arrhythmias in our study population.Pediatric Cardiology 08/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1007/s00246-014-0985-4 · 1.55 Impact Factor