Effects of strontium-doped bioactive glass on the differentiation of cultured osteogenic cells.
ABSTRACT There is accumulating evidence that strontium-containing biomaterials have positive effects on bone tissue repair. We investigated the in vitro effect of a new Sr-doped bioactive glass manufactured by the sol-gel method on osteoblast viability and differentiation. Osteoblasts isolated from foetal mouse calvaria were cultured in the presence of bioactive glass particles; particles were undoped (B75) or Sr-doped with 1 wt.% (B75-Sr1) and 5 wt.% (B75-Sr5). Morphological analysis was carried out by contrast-phase microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. At 24 h, day 6 and day 12, osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by assaying alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OC) secretion and gene expression of various bone markers, using Real-Time-PCR. Alizarin Red staining and ALP histoenzymatic localisation were performed on day 12. Microscopic observations and MTS showed an absence of cytotoxicity in the three investigated bioactive glasses. B75-Sr5 particles in cell cultures, in comparison with those of B75 and B75-Sr1, resulted in a significant up-regulation of Runx2, Osterix, Dlx5, collagen I, ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and OC mRNA levels on day 12, which was associated with an increase of ALP activity on day 6 and OC secretion on day 12. In conclusion, osteoblast differentiation of foetal mouse calvarial cells was enhanced in the presence of bioactive glass particles containing 5 wt.% strontium. Thus, B75-Sr5 may represent a promising bone-grafting material for bone regeneration procedures.