Loss of Guanylyl Cyclase C (GCC) Signaling Leads to Dysfunctional Intestinal Barrier

Division of Gastroenterology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2011; 6(1):e16139. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Guanylyl Cyclase C (GCC) signaling via uroguanylin (UGN) and guanylin activation is a critical mediator of intestinal fluid homeostasis, intestinal cell proliferation/apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. As a mechanism for some of these effects, we hypothesized that GCC signaling mediates regulation of intestinal barrier function.
Paracellular permeability of intestinal segments was assessed in wild type (WT) and GCC deficient (GCC-/-) mice with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, as well as in UGN deficient (UGN-/-) mice. IFNγ and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) levels were determined by real time PCR. Expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC), and STAT1 activation were examined in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intestinal mucosa. The permeability of Caco-2 and HT-29 IEC monolayers, grown on Transwell filters was determined in the absence and presence of GCC RNA interference (RNAi). We found that intestinal permeability was increased in GCC-/- and UGN-/- mice compared to WT, accompanied by increased IFNγ levels, MLCK and STAT1 activation in IECs. LPS challenge promotes greater IFNγ and STAT1 activation in IECs of GCC-/- mice compared to WT mice. Claudin-2 and JAM-A expression were reduced in GCC deficient intestine; the level of phosphorylated MLC in IECs was significantly increased in GCC-/- and UGN-/- mice compared to WT. GCC knockdown induced MLC phosphorylation, increased permeability in IEC monolayers under basal conditions, and enhanced TNFα and IFNγ-induced monolayer hyperpermeability.
GCC signaling plays a protective role in the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier by regulating MLCK activation and TJ disassembly. GCC signaling activation may therefore represent a novel mechanism in maintaining the small bowel barrier in response to injury.


Available from: Kris A. Steinbrecher, Jun 03, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uroguanylin is a gastrointestinal hormone primarily involved in fluid and electrolyte handling. It has recently been reported that prouroguanylin, secreted postprandially, is converted to uroguanylin in the brain and activates the receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) to reduce food intake and prevent obesity. Here, we tested CNS administration of two GC-C agonists and found no significant reduction of food intake. We also carefully phenotyped mice lacking the GC-C receptor and found them to have normal body weight, adiposity and glucose tolerance. Interestingly, uroguanylin knockout mice had a small but significant increase in body weight and adiposity that was accompanied by glucose intolerance. Our data indicate that the modest effects of uroguanylin on energy and glucose homeostasis are not centrally mediated by central GC-C receptors.
    Diabetes 06/2014; 63(11). DOI:10.2337/db14-0160 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The isolation of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) from Escherichia coli and cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae has increased our knowledge of specific mechanisms of action that could be used as pharmacological tools to understand the guanylyl cyclase-C and the adenylyl cyclase enzymatic systems. These discoveries have also been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the electrolyte and water balance in the gut, kidney, and urinary tracts under normal conditions and in disease. Herein, we review the evolution of genes of the guanylin family and STa genes from bacteria to fish and mammals. We also describe new developments and perspectives regarding these novel bacterial compounds and peptide hormones that act in electrolyte and water balance. The available data point toward new therapeutic perspectives for pathological features such as functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with constipation, colorectal cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma, hypertension, gastrointestinal barrier function damage associated with enteropathy, enteric infection, malnutrition, satiety, food preferences, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and effects on behavior and brain disorders such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2014; DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20133063 · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2015; 148(3). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.01.003 · 13.93 Impact Factor