Immunogenicity and Cross-Reactivity of 2009–2010 Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in US Adults and Elderly
ABSTRACT The campaign of 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccination was concurrent with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Using a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, we evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009-2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in US adult and elderly populations. Vaccination of TIV resulted in a robust boost on the antibody response of all subjects to seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) and A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) with over 70% of recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. B/Brisbane/60/2008 was the least immunogenic among the three seasonal vaccine strains with <30% of TIV recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. TIV vaccination also induced a moderate boost on the pandemic specific antibody responses. Twenty-four percent of adults and 36% of elderly reached a seroprotective HAI titer of 40 or more against pandemic A/South Carolina/18/2009 (H1N1) after receiving TIV compared to 4% and 7% at the beginning of vaccination, respectively. In addition, 22% of adults and 34% of elderly showed an increase of 4-fold or more in A/South Carolina/18/2009 specific HAI titers after TIV vaccination. The pandemic specific cross-reactive antibodies strongly correlated with the post-vaccination HAI titers against the seasonal H3N2 vaccine strain in all subjects.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although influenza is regarded as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, vaccine coverage remains poor. We evaluated the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, 40 colorectal cancer patients who received an influenza vaccine at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons were analyzed. The blood samples were collected at prevaccination and 30 days post vaccination, and antibody titers were measured using the hemagglutination-inhibition tests. In the 2009-2011 season, the seroprotection rate for H1N1 (94.7%) was significantly higher than that for H3N2 (42.1%) and B (47.3%). The seroconversion rate was 52.6%, 26.3%, and 36.8% for H1N1, H3N2, and B, respectively. Fold increase of geometric mean titer (MFI) was 3.86, 1.49, and 3.33 for H1N1, H3N2, and B, respectively. In the 2010-2011 season, the seroprotection rate for H1N1 (57.1%) was significantly higher than that for H3N2 (52.4%) and B (38.1%). The seroconversion rate was 52.4%, 47.6% and 33.3% for H1N1, H3N2, and B, respectively. MFI was 12.29, 3.62 and 4.27 for H1N1, H3N2, and B, respectively. Our study cohort showed an acceptable immune response to an influenza vaccine without significant adverse effects, supporting the recommendation for annual influenza vaccination in colorectal cancer patients.Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2013; 45(4):303-12. DOI:10.4143/crt.2013.45.4.303 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that micronutrient levels play a role in the immune response to vaccination; however, population-level research on the association between micronutrient levels and immune response to influenza vaccination is needed. In this study, we hypothesized that decreasing levels of nutrients would be associated with decreased hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) responses to influenza vaccination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether serum vitamin A, vitamin E, or zinc levels are associated with influenza vaccine response determined by HAI titer in adults 65 years or older. Participants in this study included 205 community-dwelling adults 65 years or older who resided in Marshfield, WI, USA, from fall 2008 through spring 2009. Participants received trivalent influenza vaccine and donated blood samples before and 21 to 28 days after vaccination. Prevaccination levels of serum retinol, α-tocopherol, and zinc as well as prevaccination and postvaccination HAI titer levels were measured. No participants were vitamin A or vitamin E deficient; 20% had low serum zinc levels (<70 μg/dL). Continuous variables and categorical quartiles coding for vitamin A, vitamin E, and zinc levels were not related to prevaccination or postvaccination seroprotection or seroconversion for any of the vaccine components (influenza A [H1N1], A [H3N2], or B), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and prevaccination HAI geometric mean titer. In conclusion, our study population showed no association between variations in levels of serum vitamin A, vitamin E, or zinc and influenza vaccine response as measured by HAI in adults older than 65 years. Thus, associations between micronutrients and other measures of vaccine response, such as cell-mediated immune parameters, should also be explored.Nutrition research 02/2014; 34(2):149-54. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.12.004 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One pathway through which pandemic influenza strains might emerge is reassortment from coinfection of different influenza A viruses. Seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to target the circulating strains, which intuitively decreases the prevalence of coinfection and the chance of pandemic emergence due to reassortment. However, individual-based analyses on 2009 pandemic influenza show that the previous seasonal vaccination may increase the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 infection. In view of pandemic influenza preparedness, it is essential to understand the overall effect of seasonal vaccination on pandemic emergence via reassortment. In a previous study we applied a population dynamics approach to investigate the effect of infection-induced cross-immunity on reducing such a pandemic risk. Here the model was extended by incorporating vaccination for seasonal influenza to assess its potential role on the pandemic emergence via reassortment and its effect in protecting humans if a pandemic does emerge. The vaccination is assumed to protect against the target strains but only partially against other strains. We find that a universal seasonal vaccine that provides full-spectrum cross-immunity substantially reduces the opportunity of pandemic emergence. However, our results show that such effectiveness depends on the strength of infection-induced cross-immunity against any novel reassortant strain. If it is weak, the vaccine that induces cross-immunity strongly against non-target resident strains but weakly against novel reassortant strains, can further depress the pandemic emergence; if it is very strong, the same kind of vaccine increases the probability of pandemic emergence. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated and live attenuated, only live attenuated vaccines can induce heterosubtypic immunity. Current vaccines are effective in controlling circulating strains; they cannot always help restrain pandemic emergence because of the uncertainty of the oncoming reassortant strains, however. This urges the development of universal vaccines for prevention of pandemic influenza.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114637. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114637 · 3.53 Impact Factor