The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 North Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792, USA.
Nature Reviews Neurology (Impact Factor: 15.36). 02/2011; 7(3):154-64. DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.3
Source: PubMed


Cognitive impairment, particularly memory disruption, is a major complicating feature of epilepsy. This Review will begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We present a brief overview of anatomical substrates of memory disorders in TLE, followed by a discussion of how our understanding of these disorders has been improved by studying the outcomes of anterior temporal lobectomy. The clinical efforts made to predict which patients are at greatest risk of experiencing adverse cognitive outcomes following epilepsy surgery are also considered. Finally, we examine the vastly changing view of TLE, including findings demonstrating that anatomical abnormalities extend far outside the temporal lobe, and that cognitive impairments extend beyond memory function. Linkage between these distributed cognitive and anatomical abnormalities point to a new understanding of the anatomical architecture of cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Clarifying the origin of these cognitive and anatomical abnormalities, their progression over time and, most importantly, methods for protecting cognitive and brain health in epilepsy, present a challenge to neurologists.

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Available from: Jack Lin, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "Recurrent seizures and interictal activity contribute to fluctuating and progressive memory deficits in MTS. Higher seizure frequency negatively impacts on memory performance [1] [3] [4] [5]. The impact of contralateral electrographic involvement on memory function in unilateral MTS has not been studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: AbstractPurpose To evaluate the effect of contralateral electrographic involvement on memory performance (measured by neuropsychological and Wada memory testing) in patients with epilepsy associated with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Methods We studied 51 patients with medically-refractory epilepsy associated with unilateral MTS (27 women, 30/51, left MTS) submitted to prolonged non-invasive video-EEG monitoring and bilateral Wada testing. According to ictal electrographic involvement, patients were classified as: Contralateral ictal involvement, when one or more seizures evolved with rhythmic activity in the temporal region contralateral to the MTS or exclusive ipsilateral ictal involvement if all seizures showed ictal EEG activity exclusively on the MTS side. Wada testing involved a twelve-item memory paradigm. Wada memory asymmetry score was calculated for each patient subtracting the number of recalled items after injection on the lesion side from the number of recalled items after contralateral injection. Expected asymmetry (EA) was considered if Wada memory asymmetry > 0, and Symmetrical or Reversed memory asymmetry (S-RA) when ≤ 0. Neuropsychological testing was applied in the 51 patients and in 40 healthy controls. Verbal Memory was evaluated with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), considering the number of recalled items on immediate recall after the initial five consecutive encoding trials (RAVLT 6), a post-interference delayed (30 min) recall (RAVLT 7), and recall after 7 days. Nonverbal memory was tested with Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Faces subtests 1 e 2. Results Groups did not differ in demographic, clinical and video-EEG monitoring variables. S-RA was observed more frequently in the group with contralateral ictal involvement (57.2% vs. 27.0%; p: 0.03). Logistic regression analysis considering demographic, clinical, hippocampal volume and video-EEG monitoring variables showed contralateral ictal involvement as the only independent variable associated with S-RA (coefficient = 1.3
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2015; 359:241 - 246. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.11.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Episodic memory impairment is a signature cognitive deficit in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and much has been learned about the relationship between memory dysfunction and hippocampal abnormalities in TLE [1]. Neuropsychological (NP) testing of patients with TLE with proven structural hippocampal abnormalities has provided evidence that memory dysfunction is related to these structural changes [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the functional substrate for memory function differences in patients with left or right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from an electrophysiological perspective. To characterize these differences, we hypothesized that hippocampal theta connectivity in the resting-state might be different between patients with left and right mTLE with HS and be correlated with memory performance. Resting-state hippocampal theta connectivity, identified via whole-brain magnetoencephalography, was evaluated. Connectivity and memory function in 41 patients with mTLE with HS (left mTLE=22; right mTLE=19) were compared with those in 46 age-matched healthy controls and 28 patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) but without HS. Connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left middle frontal gyrus was significantly stronger in patients with right mTLE than in patients with left mTLE. Moreover, this connectivity was positively correlated with delayed verbal recall and recognition scores in patients with mTLE. Patients with left mTLE had greater delayed recall impairment than patients with right mTLE and FCD. Similarly, delayed recognition performance was worse in patients with left mTLE than in patients with right mTLE and FCD. No significant differences in memory function between patients with right mTLE and FCD were detected. Patients with right mTLE showed significantly stronger hippocampal theta connectivity between the right hippocampus and left middle frontal gyrus than patients with FCD and left mTLE. Our results suggest that right hippocampal-left middle frontal theta connectivity could be a functional substrate that can account for differences in memory function between patients with left and right mTLE. This functional substrate might be related to different compensatory mechanisms against the structural hippocampal lesions in left and right mTLE groups. Given the positive correlation between connectivity and delayed verbal memory function, hemispheric-specific hippocampal-frontal theta connectivity assessment could be useful as an electrophysiological indicator of delayed verbal memory function in patients with mTLE with HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 08/2015; 51:251-258. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.07.032 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "typically showed lower reliability in mTL, with ICCs typically below 0.5, and sometimes much lower [Clement and Belleville, 2009; Putcha et al., 2011; Wagner et al., 2005]. Furthermore, a verbal memory task may be less reliable than other memory fMRI tasks [Harrington et al., 2006]. "
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    ABSTRACT: fMRI is increasingly implemented in the clinic to assess memory function. There are multiple approaches to memory fMRI, but limited data on advantages and reliability of different methods. Here, we compared effect size, activation lateralisation, and between-sessions reliability of seven memory fMRI protocols: Hometown Walking (block design), Scene encoding (block design and event-related design), Picture encoding (block and event-related), and Word encoding (block and event-related). All protocols were performed on three occasions in 16 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Group T-maps showed activity bilaterally in medial temporal lobe for all protocols. Using ANOVA, there was an interaction between hemisphere and seizure-onset lateralisation (P = 0.009) and between hemisphere, protocol and seizure-onset lateralisation (P = 0.002), showing that the distribution of memory-related activity between left and right temporal lobes differed between protocols and between patients with left-onset and right-onset seizures. Using voxelwise intraclass Correlation Coefficient, between-sessions reliability was best for Hometown and Scenes (block and event). The between-sessions spatial overlap of activated voxels was also greatest for Hometown and Scenes. Lateralisation of activity between hemispheres was most reliable for Scenes (block and event) and Words (event). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis to explore the ability of each fMRI protocol to classify patients as left-onset or right-onset TLE, only the Words (event) protocol achieved a significantly above-chance classification of patients at all three sessions. We conclude that Words (event) protocol shows the best combination of between-sessions reliability of the distribution of activity between hemispheres and reliable ability to distinguish between left-onset and right-onset patients. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 03/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22726 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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