Racial differences in incident heart failure during antihypertensive therapy.
ABSTRACT Blacks have a higher prevalence of heart failure (HF) than nonblacks, possibly reflecting a greater burden of HF risk factors, including hypertension. Although HF incidence is significantly higher in blacks during long-term follow-up of young adults, the relationship of incident HF to race in hypertensive patients undergoing treatment is unclear.
Incident HF was evaluated in 497 black and 8199 nonblack hypertensive patients with no history of HF randomly assigned to losartan- or atenolol-based treatment. During 4.7±1.1 years mean follow-up, HF hospitalization occurred in 265 patients (3.0%); 5-year HF incidence was significantly greater in black than nonblack patients (7.0 versus 3.1%, P<0.001). In Cox multivariate analyses adjusting for randomized treatment, age, sex, the presence of the strain pattern on the baseline ECG, and other HF risk factors treated as standard covariates, and for incident myocardial infarction, in-treatment QRS duration, diastolic and systolic pressure, Cornell product, and Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) treated as time-varying covariates, black race remained associated with a 130% increased risk of developing new HF (hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 4.28).
Incident HF is substantially more common among black than nonblack hypertensive patients. The increased risk of developing new HF in blacks persists after adjusting for the higher prevalence of HF risk factors in blacks, for treatment effects and in-treatment blood pressure, and for the known predictive value of the ECG strain pattern and in-treatment ECG LVH and QRS duration for incident HF in this population. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00338260.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether there are signs of improvement in the rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations given the recent reports of improvement in national trends. HF admissions data from the Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System were analyzed. Hospitalization for primary diagnosis of HF (HFPD) in adults (aged 20 years old or older) decreased from 4.5% in 2006 to 4.2% in 2008. Similarly, age-adjusted HF hospitalization (per 10,000 population) declined by 19.1% (from 45.5 in 2006 to 36.8 in 2008). The age-adjusted rates remain higher among blacks than whites and higher among men than women. Notably, the rate ratio of black-to-white men ages 20 to 34 years admitted with HFPD increased from 8.5 in 2006 to 11.1 in 2008; similarly, the adjusted odds ratios for HFPD were 4.75 (95% confidence interval 3.29-6.86) and 5.61 (95% confidence interval 3.70-8.49), respectively. There was, however, a significant improvement in odds ratio for HF rates among young black women, as evidenced by a decrease from 4.60 to 3.97 (aged 20-34 years) and 4.21 to 3.12 (aged 35-44 years) between 2006 and 2008, respectively. Among patients aged 20 to 34 and 35 to 44 years, hypertension was the strongest independent predictor for HF. Diabetes and myocardial infarction emerged as predictors for HF among patients aged 35 years and older. The overall rate of HF hospitalization declined during the period surveyed, but the persistent disproportionate involvement of blacks with evidence of worsening among younger black men, requires close attention.Southern medical journal 02/2013; 106(2):147-54. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lowering dietary sodium and adhering to medication regimens are difficult for persons with heart failure (HF). Because these behaviors often occur within the family context, this study evaluated the effects of family education and partnership interventions on dietary sodium (Na) intake and medication adherence (MA). HF patient and family member (FM) dyads (n = 117) were randomized to: usual care (UC), patient-FM education (PFE), or family partnership intervention (FPI). Dietary Na (3-day food record), urinary Na (24-hour urine), and MA (Medication Events Monitoring System) were measured at baseline (BL) before randomization, and at 4 and 8 months. FPI and PFE reduced urinary Na at 4 months, and FPI differed from UC at 8 months (P = .016). Dietary Na decreased from BL to 4 months, with both PFE (P = .04) and FPI (P = .018) lower than UC. The proportion of subjects adherent to Na intake (≤2,500 mg/d) was higher at 8 months in PFE and FPI than in UC (χ(2)(2) = 7.076; P = .029). MA did not differ among groups across time. Both FPI and PFE groups increased HF knowledge immediately after intervention. Dietary Na intake, but not MA, was improved by PFE and FPI compared with UC. The UC group was less likely to be adherent with dietary Na. Greater efforts to study and incorporate family-focused education and support interventions into HF care are warranted.Journal of cardiac failure 12/2013; 19(12):829-841. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients with essential hypertension. The main objective of this study was to assess the echocardiographic prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertension, its risk factors and effect of antihypertensive drugs on its prevalence. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted on 200 hypertensive patients on treatment in southwest Ethiopia. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from participants and their clinical records. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken according to recommended standards. Left ventricular mass was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Associations between categorical variables were assessed using chi-square test and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Logistic regression model was done to identify risks factors of LVH. P values of < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The mean age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index were 55.7 +/- 11.3 years, 139.2 +/- 7.7 mmHg, 89.2 +/- 5.7 mmHg and 24.2 +/- 3.4 Kg/m2 respectively. The overall prevalence of LVH among these study subjects was 52%. Age >=50 years (OR: 3.49, 95% CI 1.33-9.14, P = 0.011), female gender (OR: 7.69, 95% CI 3.23-20.0, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure >=140 mmHg (OR: 2.85, 95% CI 1.27-6.41, P = 0.011), and duration of hypertension (OR: 3.59, 95% CI 1.47-8.76, P = 0.005) were independent predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were the only antihypertensive drugs associated with lower risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (OR: 0.08, 95%CI 0.03-0.19, p < 0.001). Left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be highly prevalent in hypertensive patients in Ethiopia. ACE inhibitors were the only antihypertensive drugs associated with reduced risk of LVH. We thus recommend strategies to early detect and treat hypertension and to timely screen for LVH among patients with hypertension. Multicenter prospective studies in Africa settings would be ideal to identify the best antihypertensive agents in black Africans.BMC Research Notes 01/2014; 7(1):45.