Racial Differences in Incident Heart Failure During Antihypertensive Therapy
ABSTRACT Blacks have a higher prevalence of heart failure (HF) than nonblacks, possibly reflecting a greater burden of HF risk factors, including hypertension. Although HF incidence is significantly higher in blacks during long-term follow-up of young adults, the relationship of incident HF to race in hypertensive patients undergoing treatment is unclear.
Incident HF was evaluated in 497 black and 8199 nonblack hypertensive patients with no history of HF randomly assigned to losartan- or atenolol-based treatment. During 4.7±1.1 years mean follow-up, HF hospitalization occurred in 265 patients (3.0%); 5-year HF incidence was significantly greater in black than nonblack patients (7.0 versus 3.1%, P<0.001). In Cox multivariate analyses adjusting for randomized treatment, age, sex, the presence of the strain pattern on the baseline ECG, and other HF risk factors treated as standard covariates, and for incident myocardial infarction, in-treatment QRS duration, diastolic and systolic pressure, Cornell product, and Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) treated as time-varying covariates, black race remained associated with a 130% increased risk of developing new HF (hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 4.28).
Incident HF is substantially more common among black than nonblack hypertensive patients. The increased risk of developing new HF in blacks persists after adjusting for the higher prevalence of HF risk factors in blacks, for treatment effects and in-treatment blood pressure, and for the known predictive value of the ECG strain pattern and in-treatment ECG LVH and QRS duration for incident HF in this population. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00338260.
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ABSTRACT: Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.04/2012; 2012:275624. DOI:10.1155/2012/275624
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ABSTRACT: Hypertension (HTN) is the most common co-morbidity in the world, and its sequelae, heart failure (HF) is one of most common causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Current understanding of pathophysiology and management of HTN in HF is mainly based on studies, which have mainly included whites. Among racial groups, African-American adults have the highest rates (44%) of hypertension in the world and are more resistant to treatment. There is an emerging consensus on the significance of racial disparities in the pathophysiology and treatment options of hypertension and heart failure. However, African Americans had been underrepresented in all the trials until the initiation of the A-HEFT trial. Since the recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as an important medical condition, large clinical trials have shown benefits of OSA treatment among patients with HTN and HF. This paper focuses on the pathophysiology, causes of secondary hypertension, and treatment of hypertension among African-American patients with heart failure. There is increasing need for randomized clinical trials testing innovative treatment options for African-American patients.05/2011; 2011:417594. DOI:10.4061/2011/417594