Locomotion in stroke subjects: interactions between unaffected and affected sides
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensorimotor interactions between unaffected and affected sides of post-stroke subjects during locomotion. In healthy subjects, stimulation of the tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase is followed by electromyography responses not only in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior, but also in the proximal arm muscles of both sides, with larger amplitudes prior to swing over an obstacle compared with normal swing. In post-stroke subjects, the electromyography responses were stronger on both sides when the tibial nerve of the unaffected leg was stimulated compared with stimulation of the affected leg. This difference was more pronounced when stimuli were applied prior to swing over an obstacle than prior to normal swing. This indicates an impaired processing of afferent input from the affected leg resulting in attenuated and little task-modulated reflex responses in the arm muscles on both sides. In contrast, an afferent volley from the unaffected leg resulted in larger electromyography responses, even in the muscles of the affected arm. Arm muscle activations were stronger during swing over an obstacle than during normal swing, with no difference in electromyography amplitudes between the unaffected and affected sides. It is concluded that the deficits of the affected arm are compensated for by influences from the unaffected side. These observations indicate strong mutual influences between unaffected and affected sides during locomotion of post-stroke subjects, which might be used to optimize rehabilitation approaches.
SourceAvailable from: Kamal Narayan Arya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Balance and functional abilities are controlled by both sides of the body. The role of nonparetic side has never been explored for such skills. Objective. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of a motor therapy program primarily involving the nonparetic side on balance and function in chronic stroke. Method. A randomized controlled, double blinded trial was conducted on 39 poststroke hemiparetic subjects (21, men; mean age, 42 years; mean poststroke duration, 13 months). They were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 20) and control group (n = 19). The participants received either motor therapy focusing on the nonparetic side along with the conventional program or conventional program alone for 8 weeks (3 session/week, 60 minutes each). The balance ability was assessed using Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) while the functional performance was measured by Barthel Index (BI). Result. After intervention, the experimental group exhibited significant (P < 0.05) change on BBS (5.65 versus 2.52) and BI (12.75 versus 2.16) scores in comparison to the control group. Conclusion. The motor therapy program incorporating the nonparetic side along with the affected side was found to be effective in enhancing balance and function in stroke.01/2014; 2014:769726. DOI:10.1155/2014/769726
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Gait speed is an important predictor of health that is negatively affected by aging and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes has been linked to reduced vasoreactivity, i.e., the capacity to regulate cerebral blood flow in response to CO2 challenges. This study aimed to determine the relationship between cerebral vasoreactivity and gait speed in older adults with and without diabetes. Research design and methods: We studied 61 adults with diabetes (65 ± 8 years) and 67 without diabetes (67 ± 9 years) but with similar distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. Preferred gait speed was calculated from a 75 m walk. Global and regional perfusion, vasoreactivity and vasodilation reserve were measured using 3-D continuous arterial spin labeling MRI at 3 Tesla during normo-, hyper- and hypocapnia and normalized for end-tidal CO2. Results: Diabetic participants had slower gait speed as compared to non-diabetic participants (1.05 ± 0.15 m/s vs. 1.14 ± 0.14 m/s, p < 0.001). Lower global vasoreactivity (r (2) adj = 0.13, p = 0.007), or lower global vasodilation reserve (r (2) adj = 0.33, p < 0.001), was associated with slower walking in the diabetic group independently of age, BMI and hematocrit concentration. For every 1 mL/100 g/min/mmHg less vasodilation reserve, for example, gait speed was 0.05 m/s slower. Similar relationships between vasodilation reserve and gait speed were also observed regionally within the cerebellum, frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (r (2) adj = 0.27-0.33, p < 0.0001). In contrast, vasoreactivity outcomes were not associated with walking speed in non-diabetic participants, despite similar vasoreactivity ranges across groups. Conclusion: In the diabetic group only, lower global vasoreactivity was associated with slower walking speed. Slower walking in older diabetic adults may thus hallmark reduced vasomotor reserve and thus the inability to increase perfusion in response to greater metabolic demands during walking.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 06/2014; 6:135. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00135 · 2.84 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Interlimb coordination is essential to perform goal-directed daily tasks and purposeful locomotion. The coordination occurs due to spatiotemporal coupling of movements, which also comprises interactions in segmental kinematics, joint dynamics, and muscle activity. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological linkages at the spinal and brain level are responsible for the coordination. The linkage is termed "neural coupling". According to the task demand, the coupling may occur between two upper limbs or two lower limbs or all four limbs. Central pattern generators play a key role in interlimb coordination by regulating the rhythmic upper and lower limb movements. Neuroanatomically, multiple areas of both cerebral hemispheres via the corpus callosum interact and control the bimanual upper limb movements. There is an interhemispheric synchronization and disinhibition to control the coupled bimanual upper and lower limb movements. Movement of the upper limb also enhances neuromuscular recruitment of the lower limb. In stroke, bimanual motor impairments exist in the form of asymmetry and reduced coordination, which may be related to weakness of the ipsilateral body side lesser than the contralateral side. The aim of the present review was to understand the interlimb coordination and neural coupling and its implication in stroke rehabilitation. The review suggests incorporating the movements of bilateral upper and lower limbs either simultaneously or consecutively for hemiparetic subjects. Further, the conventional and contemporary rehabilitation methods need to be reconsidered while utilizing the coupling concept.Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.rehab.2014.06.003