Inorganic nanoparticles for multimodal molecular imaging
ABSTRACT Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.
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ABSTRACT: Enormous efforts have been made toward the translation of nanotechnology into medical practice, including cancer management. Generally the applications have fallen into two categories: diagnosis and therapy. Because the targets are often the same, the development of separate approaches can miss opportunities to improve efficiency and effectiveness. The unique physical properties of nanomaterials enable them to serve as the basis for superior imaging probes to locate and report cancerous lesions and as vehicles to deliver therapeutics preferentially to those lesions. These technologies for probes and vehicles have converged in the current efforts to develop nanotheranostics, nanoplatforms with both imaging and therapeutic functionalities. These new multimodal platforms are highly versatile and valuable components of the emerging trend toward personalized medicine, which emphasizes tailoring treatments to the biology of individual patients to optimize outcomes. The close coupling of imaging and treatment within a theranostic agent and the data about the evolving course of an illness that these agents provide can facilitate informed decisions about modifications to treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles, especially superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), have long been studied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Owing to recent progress in synthesis and surface modification, many new avenues have opened for this class of biomaterials. Such nanoparticles are not merely tiny magnetic crystals, but potential platforms with large surface-to-volume ratios. By taking advantage of the well-developed surface chemistry of these materials, researchers can load a wide range of functionalities, such as targeting, imaging and therapeutic features, onto their surfaces. This versatility makes magnetic nanoparticles excellent scaffolds for the construction of theranostic agents, and many efforts have been launched toward this goal. In this Account, we introduce the surface engineering techniques that we and others have developed, with an emphasis on how these techniques affect the role of nanoparticles as imaging or therapeutic agents. We and others have developed a set of chemical methods to prepare magnetic nanoparticles that possess accurate sizes, shapes, compositions, magnetizations, relaxivities, and surface charges. These features, in turn, can be harnessed to adjust the toxicity and stability of the nanoparticles and, further, to load functionalities, via various mechanisms, onto the nanoparticle surfaces.Accounts of Chemical Research 05/2011; 44(10):883-92. DOI:10.1021/ar200044b · 24.35 Impact Factor
- Small 07/2011; 7(14):1977-81. DOI:10.1002/smll.201100566 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer nanotheranostics aims to combine imaging and therapy of cancer through use of nanotechnology. The ability to engineer nanomaterials to interact with cancer cells at the molecular level can significantly improve the effectiveness and specificity of therapy to cancers that are currently difficult to treat. In particular, metastatic cancers, drug-resistant cancers, and cancer stem cells impose the greatest therapeutic challenge for targeted therapy. Targeted therapy can be achieved with appropriately designed drug delivery vehicles such as nanoparticles, adult stem cells, or T cells in immunotherapy. In this article, we first review the different types of nanotheranostic particles and their use in imaging, followed by the biological barriers they must bypass to reach the target cancer cells, including the blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, and particularly the blood-brain barrier. We then review how nanotheranostics can be used to improve targeted delivery and treatment of cancer cells. Finally, we discuss development of nanoparticles to overcome current limitations in cancer therapy.Advanced Materials 09/2011; 23(36):H217-47. DOI:10.1002/adma.201102313 · 15.41 Impact Factor