Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Sexual Assault Survivors in Cape Town, South Africa: An Observational Study

Positive Health Program at San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, 94110, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 02/2011; 16(4):990-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-011-9892-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We describe 131 South African sexual assault survivors offered HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). While the median days completed was 27 (IQR 27, 28), 34% stopped PEP or missed doses. Controlling for baseline symptoms, PEP was not associated with symptoms (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.66, 2.64). Factors associated with unprotected sex included prior unprotected sex (OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 3.04, 13.74), time since the assault (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.57) and age (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.57). Trauma counseling was protective (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Four instances of seroconversion were observed by 6 months (risk = 3.7%, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.1). Proactive follow-up is necessary to increase the likelihood of PEP completion and address the mental health and HIV risk needs of survivors. Adherence interventions and targeted risk reduction counseling should be provided to minimize HIV acquisition.

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    ABSTRACT: To assess adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for the prevention of HIV infection in victims of sexual assault. The authors carried out a systematic review, random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression of studies reporting adherence to PEP among victims of sexual violence. Seven electronic databases were searched. Our primary outcome was adherence; secondary outcomes included defaulting, refusal and side effects. 2159 titles were screened, and 24 studies matching the inclusion criteria were taken through to analysis. The overall proportion of patients adhering to PEP (23 cohort studies, 2166 patients) was 40.3% (95% CI 32.5% to 48.1%), and the overall proportion of patients defaulting from care (18 cohorts, 1972 patients) was 41.2% (95% CI 31.1% to 51.4%). Adherence appeared to be higher in developing countries compared with developed countries. Adherence to PEP is poor in all settings. Interventions are needed to support adherence.
    Sexually transmitted infections 02/2012; 88(5):335-41. DOI:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050371 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South African sexual assault survivors face the risk of potential HIV exposure, but relatively little is known about their experiences of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and post-sexual assault care. Researchers conducted 10 semistructured interviews with sexual assault survivors who had participated in an initial quantitative study of a post-sexual assault intervention that administered PEP and provided proactive individualized follow-up care. The qualitative study examined survivors' experiences of PEP and their participation in the initial observational study itself. Participants demonstrated a range of emotional reactions to PEP, while almost all equated their study experiences to positive interactions with the study nurses who administered PEP and provided informal psychosocial support. The results highlight important opportunities for nurses to enhance the quality of post-sexual assault care in order to improve patients' emotional and psychosocial outcomes and potentially increase the likelihood of survivor PEP adherence.
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