Early reexploration for suspected thrombosis after pancreas transplantation.
ABSTRACT Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of early graft loss after pancreas transplantation. Early reexploration may permit salvage or timely removal of the thrombosed graft.
This was a retrospective review of 345 pancreas transplants performed at a single center between January 2003 and December 2009. Early reexploration was defined as within 1 week of pancreas transplantation.
Of the 345 transplants, there were 35 early reexplorations. The graft was compromised in 20 cases (57%): 10 venous thromboses, 3 arterial thromboses, 2 combined arterial and venous thrombosis, 2 thromboses secondary to allograft pancreatitis, and 3 cases of positional ischemia without thrombosis. Of these allografts, three reperfused once repositioned and six were successfully thrombectomized for a graft salvage rate of 45%. One of the thrombectomized grafts remained perfused but never functioned and was removed at retransplantation. The 10 remaining compromised grafts that were deemed unsalvageable and required allograft pancreatectomy. Nine of these recipients were retransplanted (eight within 2 weeks) and one was not a retransplantation candidate.
Reexploration for suspected graft thrombosis after pancreas transplantation resulted in a negative laparotomy rate of 43%, but permitted graft salvage in 45% of compromised grafts.
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ABSTRACT: Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of early graft loss after pancreas transplantation. The grafted pancreas is difficult to salvage after complete thrombosis, especially arterial thrombosis, and graft pancreatectomy is required. We describe a patient presenting with a functioning pancreas graft with thromboses of the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). A 37-year-old woman with a 20-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent SPK. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa with enteric drainage. A Carrel patch was anastomosed to the recipient's right common iliac artery, and the graft gastroduodenal artery was anastomosed to the common hepatic artery using an arterial I-graft. The donor portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava. Four days after surgery, graft thromboses were detected by Doppler ultrasound without increases in the serum amylase and blood glucose levels. Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed thromboses in the SA, splenic vein and SMA. Selective angiography showed that blood flow was interrupted in the SA and SMA. However, pancreatic graft perfusion was maintained by the I-graft in the head of the pancreas and the transverse pancreatic artery in the body and tail of the pancreas. We performed percutaneous direct thrombolysis and adjuvant thrombolytic therapy. However, we had to stop the thrombolytic therapy because of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Thereafter, the postoperative course was uneventful and the pancreas graft was functioning with a fasting blood glucose level of 75 mg/dL, HbA1c of 5.1%, and serum C-peptide level of 1.9 ng/mL at 30 months post-transplantation.Transplantation Proceedings 04/2014; 46(3):989-91. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreas graft thrombosis remains one of the most common reasons for pancreas transplant loss. Patients with a history of thrombotic events should be identified and evaluated for thrombophilia to identify transplant candidates at highest risk. Early after transplant, vascular thrombosis is multifactorial, but beyond 2 weeks, inflammation or acute rejection predominate as the cause of thrombosis. Most pancreas transplant centers utilize some form of anticoagulation following transplantation. Aspirin is highly recommended. Unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is often administered, but some centers use heparin selectively and typically at low dose to avoid postoperative bleeding. Warfarin is less frequently given and its use should probably be limited to patients with thrombophilia. Thrombectomy, either surgical or percutaneous, may salvage the pancreas graft if performed early after the occurrence of thrombosis.Current opinion in organ transplantation 12/2011; 17(1):87-92. · 3.27 Impact Factor
Article: Early pancreas allograft thrombosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with early pancreatic allograft thrombosis (EPAT). Thrombosis is the leading non-immunological cause of early pancreatic allograft failure. Multiple risk factors have been postulated. We hypothesized that recipient perioperative hypotension was a major risk factor and evaluated the correlation of this and other parameters with EPAT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of the 118 patients who received a pancreatic allograft at our center between October 1992 and January 2010. Multiple donor and recipient parameters were analyzed as associates of EPAT by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: There were 12 episodes of EPAT, resulting in an incidence of 10.2%. On univariate analysis, EPAT was associated with perioperative hypotension, vasopressor use, and neuropathy in the recipient (p ≤ 0.04 for all). On multivariate analysis corrected for age, sex, and peripheral vascular disease, only vasopressor use retained a significant association with EPAT with a hazard ratio of 8.74 (CI 1.11-68.9, p = 0.04). Factors associated with vasopressor use included recipient ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy or neuropathy, and any surgical complication. CONCLUSIONS: Significant hypotension, measured by the need for perioperative vasopressor use was associated with EPAT, suggesting that maintenance of higher perfusion pressures may avoid this complication.Clinical Transplantation 03/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor