Early Reexploration for Suspected Thrombosis After Pancreas Transplantation

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.83). 02/2011; 91(8):902-7. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182106069
Source: PubMed


Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of early graft loss after pancreas transplantation. Early reexploration may permit salvage or timely removal of the thrombosed graft.
This was a retrospective review of 345 pancreas transplants performed at a single center between January 2003 and December 2009. Early reexploration was defined as within 1 week of pancreas transplantation.
Of the 345 transplants, there were 35 early reexplorations. The graft was compromised in 20 cases (57%): 10 venous thromboses, 3 arterial thromboses, 2 combined arterial and venous thrombosis, 2 thromboses secondary to allograft pancreatitis, and 3 cases of positional ischemia without thrombosis. Of these allografts, three reperfused once repositioned and six were successfully thrombectomized for a graft salvage rate of 45%. One of the thrombectomized grafts remained perfused but never functioned and was removed at retransplantation. The 10 remaining compromised grafts that were deemed unsalvageable and required allograft pancreatectomy. Nine of these recipients were retransplanted (eight within 2 weeks) and one was not a retransplantation candidate.
Reexploration for suspected graft thrombosis after pancreas transplantation resulted in a negative laparotomy rate of 43%, but permitted graft salvage in 45% of compromised grafts.

Download full-text


Available from: Richard S Mangus, Nov 28, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Harmonic imaging using phase or pulse inversion technology is a new sonographic diagnostic modality that has the potential to produce images of a higher quality than can be obtained with the conventional method. The aim of this study was to compare both types of harmonic modalities--tissue and contrast harmonic imaging--with the fundamental imaging mode in contrast-enhanced B-mode sonographic diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Fifty-four children presenting for diagnostic examination of vesicoureteral reflux underwent standard sonography of the urinary tract in the fundamental mode, followed by intravesical administration of a galactose-based contrast medium containing microbubbles. The contrast-enhanced sonography was conducted by scanning the bladder and each kidney in transverse and longitudinal planes, from ventral and dorsal views, consecutively in B-mode using fundamental, contrast harmonic, and tissue harmonic imaging modalities. Soft-touch buttons on the console screen were used to alternate between the three imaging options, so that switching from one modality to the other could be done almost instantaneously. For comparison, in each patient, we selected one set of contrast-enhanced images of the bladder and two sets, one ventral and one dorsal, of the kidney. In a series, the images were compared and ranked from 1 to 3, with 1 being the best, with regard to sonomorphology (demarcation of the retrovesical space and renal pelvis as the potential sites to look for vesicoureteral reflux) and reflux detection and conspicuity, if present. In all, 248 sets of images were available for comparison. The delineation of both the retrovesical space and the renal pelvis was found to be best with tissue harmonic imaging in 84% and 96% of the image sets, respectively (p < 0.01). Forty-one sets of images were compared from 27 kidney-ureter image units of 22 children (41%) with reflux. The refluxing microbubbles were much more conspicuous in the harmonic imaging mode (tissue harmonic, 100%; contrast harmonic, 93%) than in the fundamental mode (p < 0.01). In eight kidney-ureter units, the reflux was detected only by using the harmonic imaging modalities. Visualization of the urinary tract and detection of ultrasound contrast media is significantly improved by the use of the harmonic imaging modalities. When both fundamental and harmonic imaging options are available, we recommend harmonic imaging for contrast-enhanced sonographic diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 12/2001; 177(6):1411-5. DOI:10.2214/ajr.177.6.1771411 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated visualization methods of 3D sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent in the imaging evaluation of vascular patterns of focal liver tumors. Eighty-four patients with focal liver tumors underwent automatic scanning with 3D sonography 20-60 seconds after administration of a perflubutane contrast agent. The confirmed final diagnoses were 50 hepatocellular carcinomas, 20 metastatic lesions, nine hemangiomas, and five cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. Tomographic sonographic images reconstructed in 3D parallel slices and rendered sonographic images resembling angiograms were reviewed by two readers. Sonographic angiograms rendered by maximum intensity of gray values in surface smooth mode showed tumor vessels and early tumor enhancement. The average intensity of gray values with surface texture mode showed unenhanced areas within tumors. Interobserver agreement for classifying enhancement patterns with both tomographic sonography and sonographic angiography was excellent (kappa=0.84). The main pattern, intratumoral vessels with early homogeneous or heterogeneous tumor enhancement, had a sensitivity of 97% (average of both readers), specificity of 94%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 96% for hepatocellular carcinomas. The presence of tumor vessels with early peripheral ringlike tumor enhancement had a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 95%, and PPV of 86% for metastatic lesions. Peripheral nodular enhancement had a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 99%, and PPV of 89% for hemangioma. The presence of spoke-wheel arteries with early tumor enhancement had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 100%, and PPV of 100% for focal nodular hyperplasia. Three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent is useful in the evaluation of vascular patterns of focal liver tumors.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 02/2009; 192(1):165-73. DOI:10.2214/AJR.08.1107 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreas graft thrombosis remains one of the most common reasons for pancreas transplant loss. Patients with a history of thrombotic events should be identified and evaluated for thrombophilia to identify transplant candidates at highest risk. Early after transplant, vascular thrombosis is multifactorial, but beyond 2 weeks, inflammation or acute rejection predominate as the cause of thrombosis. Most pancreas transplant centers utilize some form of anticoagulation following transplantation. Aspirin is highly recommended. Unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is often administered, but some centers use heparin selectively and typically at low dose to avoid postoperative bleeding. Warfarin is less frequently given and its use should probably be limited to patients with thrombophilia. Thrombectomy, either surgical or percutaneous, may salvage the pancreas graft if performed early after the occurrence of thrombosis.
    Current opinion in organ transplantation 12/2011; 17(1):87-92. DOI:10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834ee717 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Show more