Trends in Antipsychotic Use in Dementia 1999-2007
ABSTRACT Use of atypical antipsychotics for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia increased markedly in the 1990s. Concerns about their use began to emerge in 2002, and in 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration warned that use of atypical antipsychotics in dementia was associated with increased mortality.
To examine changes in atypical and conventional antipsychotic use in outpatients with dementia from 1999 through 2007.
Time-series analyses estimated the effect of the various warnings on atypical and conventional antipsychotic usage using national Veterans Affairs data across 3 periods: no warning (1999-2003), early warning (2003-2005), and black box warning (2005-2007).
Patients aged 65 years or older with dementia (n = 254 564).
Outpatient antipsychotic use (percentage of patients, percentage of quarterly change, and difference between consecutive study periods).
In 1999, 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2-18.1) of patients with dementia were using atypical or conventional antipsychotics. Overall use began to decline during the no-warning period (rate per quarter, -0.12%; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.07; P < .001). Following the black box warning, the decline continued (rate, -0.26%; 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.18; P < .001), with a significant difference between the early and black box warning periods (P = .006). Use of atypical antipsychotics as a group increased during the no-warning period (rate, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17-0.30; P < .001), started to decline during the early-warning period (rate, -0.012; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.11; P = .85), and more sharply declined during the black box warning period (rate, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.18; P < .001). Olanzapine and risperidone showed declining rates and quetiapine showed an increase during the early-warning period, but rates of use for all 3 antipsychotics declined during the black box warning period. In the black box warning period, there was a small but significant increase in anticonvulsant prescriptions (rate, 0.117; 95% CI, 0.08-0.16; P < .001).
Use of atypical antipsychotics began to decline significantly in 2003, and the Food and Drug Administration advisory was temporally associated with a significant acceleration in the decline.
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- "While the latter's use may or may not be warranted, less than half of the treated residents who received these newer medications were in compliance with NH guidelines. A most recent report suggests declines again in both conventional and atypical anti-psychotic usage in a national sample of VA patients with dementia, with the atypical antipsychotic decline temporarily accelerated by FDA black-box warnings posted in 2005 (Kales et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: This article focuses on justification of psychoactive medication prescription for NH residents during their first three months post-admission. We extracted data from 73 charts drawn from a convenience sample of individuals who were residents of seven nursing homes (NHs) for at least three months during 2009. Six focus groups with NH staff were conducted to explore rationales for psychoactive medication usage. Eighty-nine percent of the residents who received psychoactive medications during the first three months of residence had a psychiatric diagnosis, and all residents who received psychoactive medications had a written physician's order. Mental status was monitored by staff, and psychoactive medications were titrated based on changes in mental status. One concern was that no Level II Preadmission Screening and Annual Resident Review (PASRR) evaluations were completed during the admissions process. Further, while 73% had mental health diagnoses at admission, 85% of the NH residents were on a psychoactive medication three months after admission, and 19% were on four or more psychoactive medications. Although over half of the residents had notes in their charts regarding non-psychopharmacological strategies to address problem behaviors, their number was eclipsed by the number receiving psychopharmacological treatment. While the results suggest that NHs may be providing more mental health care than in the past, psychopharmacological treatment remains the dominant approach, perhaps because of limited mental health training of staff, and lack of diagnostic precision due to few trained geriatric mental health professionals. A critical review of the role of the PASRR process is suggested.Aging and Mental Health 06/2011; 15(7):904-12. DOI:10.1080/13607863.2011.569490 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate the relationship between exposure to antipsychotic drugs and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in elderly patients. A time-matched case-control analysis nested within a cohort of 111,818 patients with at least 1 antipsychotic drug prescription during 1998 to 2008. Data were used from the PHARMO institute's database, which contains drug dispensing data from community pharmacies and hospital admission data. The index date was for the cases defined as the date of hospital admission for VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolism) or, for outpatient cases, the start of therapeutic dose low-molecular weight heparin therapy. For each case, 4 controls matched by age and sex were randomly sampled from the cohort. Two measures were used to evaluate the temporal relationship between antipsychotic drug use and the occurrence of VTE: being a current, recent, or past user and the duration of use up to the index date. The strength of the association was expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, taking into account potential confounders. We identified 367 cases of hospital admission for DVT, 342 cases of hospital admission for PE, and 323 cases of outpatient treatment of DVT. Current exposure to antipsychotic drugs was not associated with an increased risk of VTE, compared with nonusers (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.1). We found no association between dosage, the duration of use, or the type of antipsychotic drug and the risk of VTE. We found no evidence of an increased risk of VTE in elderly patients using antipsychotic drugs.Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 10/2010; 30(5):526-30. DOI:10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181f0e87d · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic (AP) use is common in Parkinson disease (PD), but APs can worsen parkinsonism, evidence for efficacy is limited, and use in patients with dementia increases mortality. To examine the frequency and characteristics, including changes over time, of AP use in a large cohort of patients with PD. Using Veterans Affairs data from fiscal year (FY) 2008, rates and predictors of AP prescribing were determined for patients with PD and psychosis stratified by dementia status (N = 2597) and a comparison group of patients with dementia and psychosis without PD (N = 6907). Fiscal year 2008 and FY2002 data were compared to examine changes in AP prescribing over time. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient facilities. Outpatients with PD and psychosis and outpatients without PD with dementia and psychosis, all receiving care at Veterans Affairs facilities in FY2002 and FY2008. Antipsychotic prescribing, including overall, class, and specific medications. In FY2008, 50% of patients with PD having a diagnosis of psychosis were prescribed an AP. Among treated patients, the atypical AP quetiapine was most frequently prescribed (66%), but approximately 30% received high-potency APs. Clozapine was rarely prescribed (<2%). In multivariate models, diagnoses of PD and dementia were associated with AP use. Comparing FY2008 with FY2002, AP use in PD was unchanged, with decreases in risperidone and olanzapine use offset by an increase in quetiapine prescribing and the introduction of aripiprazole. Half of the patients with PD and psychosis receive APs, not uncommonly high-potency agents associated with worsening parkinsonism, and frequency of use has been unchanged since the "black box" warning for AP use in patients with dementia was issued. Recent trends are a shift to quetiapine use and the common use of aripiprazole. As psychosis and dementia are frequently comorbid in PD, safety risks associated with AP use in this population need to be assessed.Archives of neurology 07/2011; 68(7):899-904. DOI:10.1001/archneurol.2011.139 · 7.01 Impact Factor