Randomized trial of zileuton for treatment of COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization.
ABSTRACT Leukotrienes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations of COPD, but leukotriene modifiers have not been studied as a possible therapy for exacerbations.
We sought to test the safety and efficacy of adding oral zileuton (a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) to usual treatment for acute exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalization.
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of zileuton 600 mg orally, 4 times daily versus placebo for 14 days starting within 12 hours of hospital admission for COPD exacerbation. Primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay; secondary outcomes included treatment failure and biomarkers of leukotriene production.
Sixty subjects were randomized to zileuton and 59 to placebo (the study was stopped short of enrollment goals because of slow recruitment). There was no difference in hospital length of stay (3.75 +/- 2.19 vs. 3.86 +/- 3.06 days for zileuton vs. placebo, p = 0.39) or treatment failure (23% vs. 27% for zileuton vs. placebo, p = 0.63) despite a decline in urinary LTE(4) levels in the zileuton-treated group as compared to placebo at 24 hours (change in natural log-transformed ng/mg creatinine -1.38 +/- 1.19 vs. 0.14 +/- 1.51, p < 0.0001) and 72 hours (-1.32 +/- 2.08 vs. 0.26 +/- 1.93, p<0.006). Adverse events were similar in both groups.
While oral zileuton during COPD exacerbations that require hospital admission is safe and reduces urinary LTE(4) levels, we found no evidence suggesting that this intervention shortened hospital stay, with the limitation that our sample size may have been insufficient to detect a modest but potentially meaningful clinical improvement.
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ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of overlapping bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has increased in recent years. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play an important role in asthma, and the type 1 CysLT receptor (CysLT1R) is expressed by many inflammatory cells. We evaluated the effect of montelukast, a CysLT1R antagonist, on mouse models of asthma, porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema, and asthma combined with emphysema. Methods Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14 and subsequently challenged with OVA on days 28, 29, and 30. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of PPE on day 25. Mice were treated subcutaneously with montelukast or vehicle from day 25 to day 31. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR); static compliance; the number of inflammatory cells; the levels of cytokines, chemokines, leukotrienes, and perforin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; and the quantitative morphometry of lung sections were analyzed on day 32. Results Treatment with montelukast significantly attenuated the AHR and eosinophilic airway inflammation in OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice. Administration of montelukast significantly reduced the AHR, static compliance, and neutrophilic airway inflammation while attenuating emphysematous lung changes in PPE-treated mice. In PPE-treated mice subjected to allergen sensitization and challenges, montelukast significantly suppressed the AHR, static compliance, and eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in addition to the development of experimentally induced emphysema in the lungs. Conclusion Our data suggest that CysLT1R antagonists may be effective in ameliorating the consequences of PPE-induced lung damage and the changes that follow allergen sensitization and challenges.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 08/2013; 50(1). DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0418OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and COPD are two chronic inflammatory disorders of the airway characterized by airflow limitation. While many similarities exist between these two diseases, they are pathologically distinct due to the involvement of different inflammatory cells; predominantly neutrophils, CD8 lymphocytes in COPD and eosinophils and CD4 lymphocytes in asthma. Cigarette smoking is associated with accelerated decline of lung function, increased mortality, and worsening of symptoms in both asthma and COPD. Furthermore, exposure to cigarette smoke can alter the inflammatory mechanisms in asthma to become similar to that seen in COPD with increasing CD8 cells and neutrophils and may therefore alter the response to therapy. Cigarette smoke exposure has been associated with a poor response to inhaled corticosteroids which are recommended as first line anti-inflammatory medications in asthma and as an add-on therapy in patients with severe COPD with history of exacerbations. While the main proposed mechanism for this altered response is the reduction of the histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) enzyme system, other possible mechanisms include the overexpression of GR-β, activation of p38 MAPK pathway and increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, 4, 8, TNF-α and NF-Kß. Few clinical trials suggest that leukotriene modifiers may be an alternative to corticosteroids in smokers with asthma but there are currently no drugs which effectively reduce the progression of inflammation in smokers with COPD. However, several HDAC2 enhancers including low dose theophylline and other potential anti-inflammatory therapies including PDE4 inhibitors and p38 MAPK inhibitors are being evaluated.Respiratory medicine 12/2011; 106(3):319-28. DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2011.11.003 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an enhanced or abnormal inflammatory immune response of the lungs to inhaled particles and gases, usually from cigarette smoke, characterised by increased numbers of neutrophils, activated macrophages and activated T-lymphocytes (Tc1 and Th1 cells). Therefore, suppression of the inflammatory response is a logical approach to the treatment of COPD. Despite the inflammatory nature of COPD, currently available anti-inflammatory therapies provide little or no benefit in COPD patients and may have detrimental effects. For this reason, there is an urgent need to discover effective and safe anti-inflammatory treatments that might prevent the relentless progression of the disease. In recent years, attention has largely been focused on inhibition of recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, and on antagonism of their products. In this review, we put together a summary of the state-of-the-art development of clearly and/or potentially useful anti-inflammatory strategies in COPD.European Respiratory Journal 04/2012; 40(3):724-41. DOI:10.1183/09031936.00213711 · 7.13 Impact Factor