"Sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in World Trade Center disaster responders.
ABSTRACT More than 20,000 responders have been examined through the World Trade Center (WTC) Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program since September 11, 2001. Studies on WTC firefighters have shown elevated rates of sarcoidosis. The main objective of this study was to report the incidence of "sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in other WTC responders.
Cases of sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease were identified by: patient self-report, physician report and ICD-9 codes. Each case was evaluated by three pulmonologists using the ACCESS criteria and only "definite" cases are reported.
Thirty-eight patients were classified as "definite" cases. Six-year incidence was 192/100,000. The peak annual incidence of 54 per 100,000 person-years occurred between 9/11/2003 and 9/11/2004. Incidence in black responders was nearly double that of white responders. Low FVC was the most common spirometric abnormality.
Sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease is present among the WTC responders. While the incidence is lower than that reported among firefighters, it is higher than expected.
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ABSTRACT: A definite cause of sarcoidosis has not been identified, however past research suggests that environmental factors may be triggers of the granulomatous response in genetically susceptible individuals. A 22-year-old male non-smoker, presented with progressive exertional dyspnea and cough of 3 months duration. One year before, when he started working in tunnel excavation, he had a normal chest radiograph. Chest imaging revealed bilateral nodules and masses of peribronchovascular distribution plus mediastinal lymphadenomegaly. Histologic lymph node analysis revealed non-caseating confluent granulomas. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and advised to change jobs. Complete remission of the disease was achieved and persisted for at least one year without steroid treatment. Sarcoidosis is believed to have environmental triggers. The timing of the onset of sarcoidosis in this patient following intensive exposure to tunnel dust suggests an environmental contribution. The recognition that sarcoidosis may have occupational triggers have medical, employment, and legal implications.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 04/2012; 55(4):390-4. DOI:10.1002/ajim.21030 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: On September 11, 2001, events at the World Trade Center (WTC) exposed residents of New York City to WTC dust and products of combustion and pyrolysis. The majority of WTC-exposed fire department rescue workers experienced a substantial decline in airflow over the first 12 months post-9/11, in addition to the normal age-related decline that affected all responders, followed by a persistent plateau in pulmonary function in the 6 years thereafter. The spectrum of the resulting pulmonary diseases consists of chronic inflammation, characterized by airflow obstruction, and expressing itself in different ways in large and small airways. These conditions include irritant induced asthma, non-specific chronic bronchitis, aggravated pre-existing obstructive lung disease (asthma or COPD), and bronchiolitis. Conditions concomitant with airways obstruction, particularly chronic rhinosinusitis and upper airway disease, and gastroesophageal reflux, have been prominent in this population. Less common have been reports of sarcoidosis or interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis are generally characterized by long latency, relatively slow progression, and a silent period with respect to pulmonary function during its evolution. For these reasons, the incidence of these outcomes may be underestimated and may increase over time. The spectrum of chronic obstructive airways disease is broad in this population and may importantly include involvement at the bronchiolar level, manifested as small airways disease. Protocols that go beyond conventional screening pulmonary function testing and imaging may be necessary to identify these diseases in order to understand the underlying pathologic processes so that treatment can be most effective. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:649–660, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 09/2011; 54(9):649 - 660. DOI:10.1002/ajim.20987 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tens of thousands of workers participated in rescue, recovery, and cleanup activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) site in lower Manhattan after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11). The collapse of the WTC resulted in the release of a variety of airborne toxicants. To date, respiratory symptoms and diseases have been among the most examined health outcomes in studies of WTC disaster workers. A systematic review of the literature on respiratory health outcomes was undertaken to describe the available information on new onset of respiratory symptoms and diseases among WTC disaster workers after September 11, 2001. Independent risk factors for respiratory health outcomes included being caught in the dust and debris cloud, early arrival at the WTC site, longer duration of work, and delaying mask and respirator use. Methodological challenges in epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers involved study design, exposure misclassification, and limited information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. In the 10 years after 9/11, epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers have been essential in investigating the respiratory health consequences of WTC exposure. Longitudinal studies along with continued medical surveillance will be vital in understanding the long-term respiratory burden associated with occupational WTC exposure.Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 09/2011; 5 Suppl 2(S2):S189-96. DOI:10.1001/dmp.2011.58 · 1.14 Impact Factor