A possible role for secreted ferritin in tissue iron distribution
ABSTRACT Ferritin is known as a well-conserved iron detoxification and storage protein that is found in the cytosol of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In insects and worms, ferritin has evolved into a classically secreted protein that transports iron systemically. Mammalian ferritins are found intracellularly in the cytosol, as well as in the nucleus, the endo-lysosomal compartment and the mitochondria. Extracellular ferritin is found in fluids such as serum and synovial and cerebrospinal fluids. We recently characterized the biophysical properties, secretion mechanism and cellular origin of mouse serum ferritin, which is actively secreted by a non-classical pathway involving lysosomal processing. Here, we review the data to support a hypothesis that intracellular and extracellular ferritin may play a role in intra- and intercellular redistribution of iron.
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- "An unusual property of ferritin is the existence of functional forms in both cytoplasmic and extracellular environments . In contrast to cytoplasmic ferritins which widely exist in both vertebrates and invertebrates, secreted ferritins are mainly found in insects and worms . They generally function as a major iron storage/transport molecule. "
ABSTRACT: As an important iron storage protein, ferritin plays a crucial role in the iron-withholding defense system. In this study, two secreted ferritin subunits (PyFerS1 and PyFerS2) were identified from the Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequences of the two ferritins are 7101 and 5359 bp, consisting of seven and five exons, respectively. The full-length cDNAs of PyFerS1 and PyFerS2 are 960 and 956 bp in length, encoding 228 and 220 amino acids, respectively. They have typical ferritin structures, with four long α-helices, one short α-helix and an L-loop. Signal peptides were found at the N-terminus of both ferritins, and phylogenetic analysis showed that they both clustered with secreted mollusc ferritins. PyFerS1 possesses all seven conserved residues of the ferroxidase center, whereas PyFerS2 only has two. Real-time PCR analysis indicated high expression level of PyFerS2 in the D-shaped larvae, and PyFerS1 in both D-shaped larvae and fertilized eggs. In adult scallops, PyFerS1 was only detected in the hepatopancreas, whereas PyFerS2 was detected in both hepatopancreas and mantle. After the scallops were challenged by iron ion or bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, the expression of both PyFerS1 and PyFerS2 was significantly elevated, suggesting they may play a role in scallop innate immune defense. For the first time, secreted ferritins were cloned and comprehensively characterized in bivalve molluscs. It will assist in better understanding of the role of secreted ferritins in bivalve innate immunity.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 01/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.01.008 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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- "In insects and worms, ferritin belongs to classically secreted proteins that transport iron. Intracellular and extracellular ferritin may play a role in intra-and intercellular redistribution of iron (Meyron-Holtz et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Ferritin, an iron storage protein, is present in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, has receptors on the cell surface, able to penetrate the brain-blood barrier, can be secreted from the cells, and leaks from destroyed cell in insult and brain trauma. The effect of exogenous ferritin on the key characteristic of glutamatergic neurotransmission was assessed in rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Exogenous ferritin (80μg/ml, iron content 0.7 %) significantly increased the ambient level of L-[(14)C]glutamate (0.200±0.015 versus 0.368±0.016nmol/mg of protein) and endogenous glutamate (fluorimetric glutamate dehydrogenase assay) in the nerve terminals. This increase was not a result of augmentation of tonic release because the velocity of tonic release of L-[(14)C]glutamate was not changed significantly in ferritin-treated synaptosomes as compared to the control. Ferritin caused a decrease in synaptic vesicle acidification that was shown using fluorescent dye acridine orange. Iron-dependence of the effects of ferritin was analyzed with apoferritin (0.0025 % residual iron). Apoferritin weakly affected the proton electrochemical gradient of synaptic vesicles but increased the ambient level and decreased the initial velocity of uptake of L-[(14)C]glutamate by synaptosomes, nevertheless these effects were ~30 % lesser than those caused by ferritin. Exogenous ferritin can provoke the development of excitotoxicity increasing the ambient level of glutamate and lowering synaptic vesicle acidification and glutamate uptake in the nerve terminals, however these effects are not completely iron-dependent. Thus, in the CNS exogenous ferritin can act as modulator of glutamate homeostasis in iron-dependent and iron-independent manner.Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 12/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2013.12.002 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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- "Likewise, our previous and current study showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of FTL and FTH in the liver, in parallel to the increased hepatic uptake of iron during APR . Most of the initial observations reported that the amount of intracellular ferritin could be modified by changes in iron status  and accumulation of H-chain [22, 23]. However, our "
ABSTRACT: Ferritin L (FTL) and Ferritin H (FTH) subunits are responsible for intercellular iron storage. We previously reported increasing amounts of liver cytoplasmic and nuclear iron content during acute phase response (APR). Aim of the present study is to demonstrate intracellular localization of ferritin subunits in liver compared with extra hepatic organs of rat under physiological and acute phase conditions. Rats were administered turpentine-oil (TO) intramuscularly to induce a sterile abscess (acute-phase-model) and sacrificed at different time points. Immunohis-tochemistry was performed utilizing horse-reddish-peroxidise conjugated secondary antibody on 4µm thick section. Liver cytoplasmic and nuclear protein were used for Western blot analysis. By means of immunohistology, FTL was detected in cytoplasm while a strong nuclear positivity for FTH was evident in the liver. Similarly, in heart, spleen and brain FTL was detected mainly in the cytoplasm while FTH demonstrated intense nuclear and a weak cytoplasmic expression. Western blot analysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from liver, heart, spleen and brain further confirmed mainly cytoplasmic expression of FTL in contrast to the nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of FTH. The data presented demonstrate the differential localization of FTL and FTH within hepatic and extra hepatic organs being FTL predominantly in the cytoplasm while FTH predominantly in nucleus.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 04/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor