Two-stage resection for bilobar colorectal liver metastases: R0 resection is the key.
ABSTRACT Two-stage liver resection (2-SLR) is used clinically in conjunction with portal vein embolization for bilobar disease to increase the number of patients suitable for liver resection. The long-term outcomes after 2-SLR for multiple bilobar colorectal liver metastases (CLM) was examined.
Patients who sought care between November 2003 and April 2006 with multiple CLM considered suitable for 2-SLR were prospectively followed. Clinicopathological data were collected. Surgical outcomes were defined as complete clearance of tumor (R0/R1/R2), postoperative morbidity (within 3 months), 30 day mortality, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS).
A total of 131 patients with CLM underwent liver resection during the study period, 38 of whom were planned for a 2-SLR for multiple bilobar disease. Only 33 (87%) completed the 2-SLR with a curative intent. Five patients did not undergo stage II resection because of disease progression. The postoperative morbidity was 11 and 33% after stage I and stage II liver resections, respectively. Five patients (13%) encountered postoperative complications specific to liver surgery. The median interval from stage II resection to disease recurrence in the R0 group was 18 months versus 3 months in the R1/R2 group (P < 0.001). R0 resection with curative intent versus R1/R2 noncurative resection has a significantly longer period of DFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.04).
The 2-SLR combined with portal vein embolization is an effective and safe method for resecting previously unresectable multiple bilobar CLM. However, a positive resection margin leads to poor DFS and OS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background To evaluate the feasibility and long-term results of two-stage hepatectomy (TSH) in patients with bilobar colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Study Design Retrospective multicenter study including 4 Italian hepatobiliary surgery units. One hundred-thirty patients were selected for TSH between 2002 and 2011. Primary endpoint was feasibility of TSH and the analysis of factors associated with failure to complete the procedure. Secondary endpoint was the long-term survival analysis. Results Patients presented with synchronous CRLM in 80.8% of cases, with a mean number of 8.3 CRLM and with concomitant extrahepatic disease in 20.0% of cases. The rate of failure to complete TSH was 21.5% and tumor progression was the most frequent reason of failure (18.5% of cases). Primary tumor characteristics, type, number and distribution of CRLM were not associated with significantly different risk of disease progression. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that tumor progression during pre-hepatectomy chemotherapy was the only independent risk factor for failure to complete TSH. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates for patients who completed TSH were 32.1% and 24.1% with a median survival of 43 months. Duration of pre-hepatectomy chemotherapy ≥6 cycles was found to be the only independent predictor of overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions This study showed that selection of patients by response to pre-hepatectomy chemotherapy may be extremely important before planning TSH, because tumor progression while receiving pre-hepatectomy chemotherapy was associated with significantly higher risk of failure to complete the second stage. For patients who completed the TSH strategy, long-term outcome can be achieved with results similar to those observed following a single-stage hepatectomy.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 08/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several reports have presented conflicting results regarding the association between resection margins (RMs) and outcome after surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CLM), especially in the era of modern chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of RMs on overall survival (OS), time to recurrence (TTR) and local recurrence (LR) status, particularly for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy. A combined retrospective (1998 to 2008) and prospective (2008 to 2010) cohort study of consecutive patients with CLM without extrahepatic disease treated with primary resection at a medium volume centre. A total of 253 patients with known R status and 242 patients with defined margin width were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to margin width; A: R1, <1 mm (n = 48, 19%), B: 1 to 4 mm (n = 77), C: 5 to 9 mm (n = 46) and D: >=10 mm (n = 71). Median time to recurrence was 12.8 months, and after five years 21.5% had no recurrence. LR (inclusive combined recurrence in other hepatic sites or extrahepatic) occurred in 40 (16.5%) cases, most frequently seen with RMs below 5 mm. Five-year OS was 42.5% in R0 and 16.1% in R1 resections (P = 0.011). Patients were also stratified according to preoperative chemotherapy (n = 88), and the difference in five-year OS between R0 (45.1%) and R1 (14.7%) was maintained (P = 0.037). By multiple Cox regression analysis R1 resections tended to an adverse outcome (P = 0.067), also when adjusting for preoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.081). R1 resections for colorectal liver metastases predict adverse outcome. RMs below 5 mm increased the risk for LR and shortened the time to recurrence. Preoperative chemotherapy did not alter an adverse outcome in R1 vs. R0 patients.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 04/2014; 12(1):127. · 1.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern in the United States (US) with over 140,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. The most common site for CRC metastases is the liver. Hepatic resection is the treatment of choice for colorectal liver metastases (CLM), with a 5-year survival rate ranging from 35% to 58%. Unfortunately, only about 20% of patients are eligible for resection. There are a number of options for extending resection to more advanced patients including systemic chemotherapy, portal vein embolization (PVE), two stage hepatectomy, ablation and hepatic artery infusion (HAI). There are few phase III trials comparing these treatment modalities, and choosing the right treatment is patient dependent. Treating hepatic metastases requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of all treatment options as there continues to be advances in management of CLM. If a patient can undergo a treatment modality in order to increase their potential for future resection this should be the primary goal. If the patient is still deemed unresectable then treatments that lengthen disease-free and overall-survival should be pursued. These include chemotherapy, ablation, HAI, chemoembolization, radioembolization (RE) and stereotactic radiotherapy.Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 10/2014; 5(5):374-387.