Modulation of a thermoregulated type VI secretion system by AHL-dependent quorum sensing in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a novel secretion system found in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, which appears to be tightly regulated by different regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we identified 4 T6SS clusters in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and demonstrated that they were differentially thermoregulated. Among them, T6SS4 was preferentially expressed at 26°C, and its expression was growth phase dependent and subject to quorum sensing regulation. Both YpsI and YtbI AHL synthases contributed to the positive regulation of T6SS4, whereas YpsI synthase played the major role as T6SS4 expression was reduced strongly in the ypsI mutant strain but weakly in the ytbI mutant strain. Moreover, we provided evidence that exogenous addition of different synthetic AHLs complemented T6SS4 expression in different efficiencies in an ypsIytbI double mutant strain, suggesting C6-HSL had an antagonistic effect on T6SS4 expression. This is the first study demonstrating that the expression of T6SS is precisely regulated by temperature, growth phase, and AHL-dependent quorum sensing systems in Y. pseudotuberculosis.
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ABSTRACT: The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, employs Type VI Secretion System 1 (T6SS1), a recently discovered protein secretion system, to combat competing bacteria. Environmental signals such as temperature, salinity, cell density, and surface-sensing, as well as the quorum sensing master regulator OpaR, were previously reported to regulate T6SS1 activity and expression. In this work, we set out to identify additional transcription regulators that control the tightly regulated T6SS1 activity. To this end, we determined the effect of deletions in several known virulence regulators and in two regulators encoded within the T6SS1 gene cluster on expression and secretion of the core T6SS component Hcp1 and on T6SS1-mediated anti-bacterial activity. We report that VP1391 and VP1407, transcriptional regulators encoded within the T6SS1 gene cluster, are essential for T6SS1 activity. Moreover, we found that H-NS, a bacterial Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, which mediates transcription silencing of horizontally acquired genes, serves as a repressor of T6SS1 under several environmental conditions. Our results shed light on the complex network of environmental signals and transcription regulators that govern the tight regulation over T6SS1 activity.Microbiology 07/2014; 160. DOI:10.1099/mic.0.080028-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates interactions between a broad range of Gram-negative bacterial species. Recent studies have led to a substantial increase in the number of characterized T6SS effector proteins and a more complete and nuanced view of the adaptive importance of the system. Although the T6SS is most often implicated in antagonism, in this Review, we consider the case for its involvement in both antagonistic and non-antagonistic behaviours. Clarifying the roles that type VI secretion has in microbial communities will contribute to broader efforts to understand the importance of microbial interactions in maintaining human and environmental health, and will inform efforts to manipulate these interactions for therapeutic or environmental benefit.Nature Reviews Microbiology 01/2014; DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3185 · 23.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a leading cause of seafood-associated diarrhea and gastroenteritis, harbors three major virulence gene loci T3SS1, Vp-PAI (T3SS1+tdh2) and T6SS2. As showing in this study, the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding regulator H-NS binds to multiple promoter-proximal regions in each of the above three loci to repress their transcription, and moreover H-NS inhibits the cytotoxicitiy, enterotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and mouse lethality of V. parahaemolyticus. H-NS appears to act as a major repressor of the virulence of this pathogen. Date presented here would promote us to gain a deeper understanding of H-NS-mediated silencing of horizontally acquired virulence loci in V. parahaemolyticus.Frontiers in Microbiology 12/2014; 5:675. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00675 · 3.94 Impact Factor