Global cancer statistics, 2012
ABSTRACT The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.
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ABSTRACT: Sorghum contains phytochemicals that can protect against multiple forms of cancers. However, the underlying molecular targets and cellular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the role of Hwanggeumchal sorghum extracts (HSE) on colon cancer cells. We found HSE inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, it suppressed the Jak2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Studies on STAT3 transcription regulatory functions showed HSE inhibited the STAT3/DNA binding and transcription promoter activity. Thereby the expression of STAT3 downstream targets VEGF and VEGF-R2 were dropped. Furthermore, HSE treatment suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in animal models. Together, these findings suggested that the targeted inhibition of Jak2/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR contribute to cancer therapy potential of H. sorghum (HS). Thus, use of sorghum as a dietary supplement has the potential as a nutraceutical to prevent the onset of colon cancer, without any side effects.Journal of Functional Foods 05/2015; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2015.03.020 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer (CC) mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC) have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to the conventional treatment employed to treat LACC. Tumor biopsies were profiled with genome-wide high-density expression microarrays. Class prediction was performed in tumor tissues and the resultant gene signature was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A 27-predictive gene profile was identified through its association with pathologic response. The 27-gene profile was validated in an independent set of patients and was able to distinguish between patients diagnosed as no response versus complete response. Gene expression analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumors diagnosed as LACC. Our findings could provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy-based treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Translational oncology 04/2015; 358(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tranon.2015.01.003 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A number of studies have investigated the associations between IL-10 polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) susceptibility; however, the conclusions were still contradictory. To acquire a more precise estimation of the association, we performed the current meta-analysis. We systematically searched publications from EMBASE and MEDLINE, and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using either fixed-effects or random-effects model. Genotype-based IL-10 mRNA expression analysis was performed using online public database of 270 individuals with three different ethnicities. A total of 10,703 cases and 11,823 controls from 10 studies were included for the -3575T>A polymorphism, 10,226 cases and 12,215 controls from 17 studies for the -1082A>G polymorphism. Pooled results indicated that IL-10 -3575T>A was associated with increased risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), especially for Caucasians and hospital-based population. There was no association between IL-10 -1082A>G and NHL risk. However, subgroup analysis showed that IL-10 -1082GG might confer increased susceptibility to FL. In summary, this meta-analysis indicated that -3575T>A polymorphism was associated with altered NHL susceptibility for Caucasians and hospital-based population, especially for DLBCL and FL subtypes. The -1082A>G polymorphism may contribute to increased FL risk. Further large-scale population studies among different ethnicities are needed to validate these results.Molecular Genetics and Genomics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00438-015-1058-y · 2.83 Impact Factor