Global cancer statistics, 2012
ABSTRACT The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise Aid (SEA), developed for isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises (against resistance), can help to functionally strengthen the suprahyoid musculature, which in turn can improve swallowing function. An effectiveness/feasibility study was carried out with ten senior healthy volunteers, who performed exercises 3 times per day for 6 weeks. Exercises included chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), jaw opening against resistance (JOAR), and effortful swallow exercises with the SEA. Multidimensional assessment consisted of measurements of maximum chin tuck and jaw opening strength, maximum tongue strength/endurance, suprahyoid muscle volume, hyoid bone displacement, swallowing transport times, occurrence of laryngeal penetration/aspiration and/or contrast residue, maximum mouth opening, feasibility/compliance (questionnaires), and subjective swallowing complaints (SWAL-QOL). After 6-weeks exercise, mean chin tuck strength, jaw opening strength, anterior tongue strength, suprahyoid muscle volume, and maximum mouth opening significantly increased (p < .05). Feasibility and compliance (median 86 %, range 48-100 %) of the SEA exercises were good. This prospective effectiveness/feasibility study on the effects of CTAR/JOAR isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises on swallowing musculature and function shows that senior healthy subjects are able to significantly increase swallowing muscle strength and volume after a 6-week training period. These positive results warrant further investigation of effectiveness and feasibility of these SEA exercises in HNC patients with dysphagia.Dysphagia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00455-015-9611-8 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi is a well-known invigorator in Chinese materia medica with hepatoprotective effect, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and so on. And oleanolic acids are the major pharmacologically active components in Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. So it has great value in medical health, and may be developed to a complementary and alternative medicine through further research. In this paper, the advances in research on pharmacological effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were summarized by reviewing the recent related literature.01/2015; 2015:1-5. DOI:10.1155/2015/281873
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is ranking second among women worldwide. The most important viral causative agent of cervical cancer is recognized as Human Papilloma viruses. Because of defect or loss of modern and advanced diagnostic tools, and proper screening assays the number of cervical cancer and related mortality is still high. In this review article, cervical cancer epidemiology, General properties of HPV and the life cycle, and HPV Genomics as a new pathway for advanced molecular diagnostic have been discussed. Regarding to preparing this review, the Google Scholar search engine and PubMed database were applied for selecting the appropriate review and original articles. The searched articles were studied and evaluated to employ them as invaluable scientific sources. The most common way for transmitting HPVs cervical cancer is sexual activities. Persistent of the HPV infections in cervix area leads to cervical cancer. In recent decades, the progression of molecular diagnostics was considerable. Today, there are a huge data about molecular biology and genomic characterizations pertaining to HPVs. Advanced molecular technologies like microarray may be a good substitution for routine diagnostics. Progression in modern molecular approaches needs a great knowledge about HPVs genomic properties. In conclusion, microarray as a rapid, accurate and reliable diagnostic technology will enable us to have a desirable diagnostic tool in association to HPV cervical cancers within early stages. This may lead to decrease of progressive cervical cancers and high rate of mortality.