Global cancer statistics. CA. Cancer J Clin

Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians (Impact Factor: 115.84). 02/2011; 61(2):69-90. DOI: 10.3322/caac.20107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.

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    • "In Sudan, there were 21,860 cases of all cancers diagnosed in 2008, of which 2,942 cases were head and neck cancers; they represent 13.5% of all cancers (Ahmed et al., 2012; Mustafa et al., 2013). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with unusually distinctive ethnic and geographic distributions, which is extremely predominant in Southern China and Southeast Asia (Jemal et al., 2011). Unlike other head and neck cancers, NPC often metastasizes to regional lymph nodes when diagnosed and has a tendency for the development of local recurrence after therapy (Razak et al., 2010). "
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    • "Prostate cancer is a significant health burden in Europe and is now the most prevalent type of cancer in men in developed countries (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) (Jemal et al., 2011). As the number of men diagnosed with prostate cancer continues to rise, more men will subsequently receive treatment and face the physical and psychological after effects of therapy (Prabhu et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, 250 000 men are affected by prostate cancer in the UK. Clinical guidance is crucial for nurses involved in the care delivery for men with advanced prostate cancer and for their families to maximize their quality and quantity of life. It is essential that nurses understand how prostate cancer is diagnosed, can recognize signs of disease progression, are familiar with disease management, and can educate patients and manage any symptoms appropriately and effectively. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based guidelines in relation to care delivery for men with metastatic prostate cancer in order to optimize best supportive care. A literature review was conducted in a range of electronic databases (DARE, Cochrane, MEDLINE, BNI, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CIHAHL) to identify studies employing qualitative and/or quantitative methods. National (UK) and European clinical guidelines were also reviewed. Methodological evaluation was conducted and the evidence-based recommendations were integrated in a narrative synthesis. Supportive care is a person-centred approach to the provision of the necessary services for those living with or affected by cancer to meet their informational, spiritual, emotional, social or physical needs during diagnosis, treatment or follow-up phases including issues of health promotion, survivorship, palliation and bereavement. A multidisciplinary and proactive approach to the management of men with metastatic prostate cancer ensures safe and effective supportive care delivery. Nurses involved in the care delivery for this patient group need to be aware of the complex physical and psychological supportive care needs, and evidence-based management care plans to ensure a personalized and tailored support to optimize quality of life.
    International Journal of Urological Nursing 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/ijun.12093 · 0.19 Impact Factor
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    • "According to the recent estimates 1.38 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 485,000 died worldwide in 2008 (Jemal et al., 2011). Breast cancer is one of the most frequent diagnosed cancers among women in the economically developing countries (Jemal et al., 2009; 2011; Ferlay et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women in the world. The disease is caused by infectious and non-infectious, environmental and lifestyle factors. Tobacco smoke has been one of the most widely studied environmental factors with possible relevance to breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of tobacco smoking in breast cancer patients in a hospital based cohort and to establish prognostic implications if any. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit of 100 women with pathological diagnosis of invasive breast cancer was included in this study. The verbal questionnaire elicited information on current and previous history of exposure to smoking in addition to active smoking. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including stage at presentation, alcohol intake, hormonal replacement therapy, oral contraceptive intake, obesity and menopausal status. Results: The mean age at presentation of breast cancer was 51.4 ± 10.86 years. Mean age of presentation was 53.1±11.5 and 45.7±11.9 years in never smokers and passive smokers, respectively. Age at presentation varied widely in patients exposed to tobacco smoke for >10 years in childhood from 40.3± 12.0 years to 47.7± 13.9 in patients exposed for > 20years as adults. Among passive smokers, 60.9% were premenopausal and 39.1% of patients were postmenopausal. In never smokers, 71.4% were post menopausal. Expression of receptors in non-smokers vs passive smokers was comparable with no significant differences. Metastatic potential in lung parenchyma was slightlyelevated in passive smokers as compared to never smokers although statistically non-significant. Conclusions: An inverse relationship exists between the intensity and duration of smoking and the age at presentation and poor prognostic factors. The results strongly suggest efforts should be taken to prevent smoking, encourage quitting and restrict exposure to second hand smoke in India.
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