Global cancer statistics. CA. Cancer J Clin

Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians (Impact Factor: 115.84). 02/2011; 61(2):69-90. DOI: 10.3322/caac.20107
Source: PubMed


The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.

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    • "During the last decade, the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer remained stable or even declined in some developed countries (Amaro et al., 2013; Autier et al., 2010). Reduction of mortality rate was attributed to earlier detection through mammography screening, therapeutic treatment advances and reduced use of menopausal hormone therapy (Jemal et al., 2011; Ravdin et al., 2007). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Missing implementation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays in public hospitals of North-eastern Brazil represents a serious access barrier to a diagnostic service of the public health system. The present study aimed on comparison of clinical- histopathological characteristics between breast cancer patients, who have and have not performed immunohistochemistry assays. Data of 677 patients with invasive breast cancer, registered in the years between 2005 and 2010, were obtained from medical records of a public hospital in Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. Overall, 384 (56.72%) out of 677 patients have not performed IHC assays. Increased tumor size (OR= 2.08; CI= 1.27- 3.45; p= 0.0030) and high histological grade (OR= 2.17; CI= 1.18- 4.17; p= 0.0130), were associated with decreased five- year survival. Five- year survival rates were 89.42% and 83.85% for patients who have and have not performed IHC assays, respectively (p= 0.0329). The hazard ratio was 1.580 (95% CI of ratio: 1.045 to 2.369).Patients who have not performed IHC assays reached hospital in a more severe state of disease. This indicated that patients who have not performed IHC assays suffered a time delay, between discoveries of first disease symptoms and begins of breast cancer treatment.
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    • "Epidemiologic studies have shown that pesticide exposure may increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related death (Ferlay et al., 2013), and between 70 and 85% of primary liver cancer cases are HCC (Jemal et al., 2011). U.S. HCC incidence, adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population, significantly increased 29% from 4.4 per 100,000 (2000 to 2004) to 5.7 per 100,000 (2005 to 2009) (rate ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27, 1.32) (National Cancer Institute, 2014a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is associated with low survival. U.S. studies examining self-reported pesticide exposure in relation to HCC have demonstrated inconclusive results. We aimed to clarify the association between pesticide exposure and HCC by implementing a novel data linkage between Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and California Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data using a geographic information system (GIS). Methods: Controls were frequency-matched to HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in California by year, age, race, sex, and duration of residence in California. Potential confounders were extracted from Medicare claims. From 1974 to 2008, pounds (1 pound represents 0.45 kg) of applied organophosphate, organochlorine, and carbamate pesticides provided in PURs were aggregated to the ZIP Code level using area weighting in a GIS. ZIP Code exposure estimates were linked to subjects using Medicare-provided ZIP Codes to calculate pesticide exposure. Agricultural residents were defined as living in ZIP Codes with a majority area intersecting agricultural land cover according to the 1992, 2001, and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) rasters. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between pesticide exposure and HCC. Results: Among California residents of agriculturally intensive areas, previous annual ZIP Code-level exposure to over 14.53 kg/km2 of organochlorine pesticides (75th percentile among controls) was associated with an increased risk of HCC after adjusting for liver disease and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 2.99; p=0.0085). ZIP Code-level organochlorines were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC among males (adjusted OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.58, 4.82; p=0.0004), but not associated with HCC among females (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.35, 1.93; p=0.6600) (interaction p=0.0075). Conclusions: This is the first epidemiologic study to use GIS-based exposure estimates to study pesticide exposure and HCC. Our results suggest that organochlorine pesticides are associated with an increase in HCC risk among males but not females.
    Environmental Research 10/2015; 143(PA):68-82. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.09.027 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males after lung and prostate cancer whereas for female, CRC is the second common cancer after breast (Jemal et al., 2011). In Malaysia, CRC is the second most common cancer in both females and males with a total of 2246 patients diagnosed with this fatal disease in the year 2007 (Zainal and Nor, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) . The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with IC50 values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells. Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, β-catenin, Gsk3β, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated. In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR, Wnt/β catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway. Keywords: mTOR - Wnt/β catenin - apoptosis - combination - HT29 colon cancer cell
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 10/2015; 16(15):6549-6556. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6549 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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