To assess the impact of a booster seat law in Wisconsin on booster seat use in relation to race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
A longitudinal study in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, involving repeated direct observational assessments of booster seat use rates by child passengers aged 4-7 years over five time periods, before and after legislation mandating booster seat use.
Overall, booster seat use increased from 24% to 43%, whereas proper restraint use increased pre to post-legislation from 21% to 28%. Proper use increased after legislation in white, but not in black or Latino children. White individuals had a proper booster use increase from 48% to 68% over the time period of the study. Black children's proper use dropped from 18% to 7% over the study period and Latino children's proper use rates were stable at 10%. Driver-reported household income had a significant impact on overall use, but not on proper use.
Racial/ethnic minority groups and those of lower socioeconomic status have significantly lower use and proper use of booster seats. Legislation may increase the total use of booster seats but not necessarily the correct use of the restraint, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities.
"Reasons for misuse are multifactorial and continue to be explored (Bilston, Finch, Hatfield, & Brown, 2008; Brixey, Corden, Guse, & Layde, 2011; Winston, Chen, Smith, & Elliott, 2006). Racial and ethnic disparities persist and may be widening, thought to be related to lower child safety seat use by racial minorities (Durbin, 2011; Brixey et al., 2011). Proper installation, one aspect of misuse, requires the child safety seat to be secured appropriately to the vehicle. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injuries involving motor vehicles continue to be the biggest threat to the safety of children. Although child safety seats (CSS) have been established as a central countermeasure in decreasing injury risk, the majority of parents do not use the correct car seat correctly. There are many challenges in promoting correct car seat use, which itself is a complex behavior. To advance this critical protective behavior, the public health community would benefit from clarifying CSS messaging, communicating clearly, and addressing the conflicting recommendations of product use. In this article, we present current challenges in promoting CSS use and draw on health communication and other fields to offer recommendations for future work in this area.
Health Promotion Practice 09/2012; 14(2). DOI:10.1177/1524839912457567 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children are best protected in motor vehicle collisions when properly using the appropriate restraint and sitting in a rear row. Racial and ethnic disparities have been reported in injury statistics and use of any restraint; however, predictors of safety seat use, being unrestrained, and sitting in the front seat have not been explored previously.
To determine factors associated with child passenger safety practices by race/ethnicity in a national sample of child passengers aged <13 years.
Secondary analysis conducted in 2011 of the 2007, 2008, and 2009 National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats in which child passenger restraint use was observed directly. Age-stratified, survey-weighted chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Restraint use was observed for 21,476 children aged <13 years. A decline in child safety seat use and increase in being unrestrained were observed with increasing child age. In multivariate analyses, race/ethnicity, unrestrained drivers, and sitting in the front seat were associated with lower odds of child safety seat use among children aged <8 years. Older child age was associated with sitting in the front seat and being unrestrained. The presence of multiple child passengers was associated with lower odds of sitting in the front but higher odds of being unrestrained.
Few children use the recommended child passenger restraints. Understanding the reasons for the suboptimal child passenger restraint practices identified in this study is essential for the development of effective programs to reduce or eliminate preventable motor vehicle collision-related injuries.
American journal of preventive medicine 09/2012; 43(3):272-81. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.023 · 4.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Belt-positioning booster seats have been shown to reduce injury risk among child passengers aged 4 to 8 in motor vehicle crashes. To encourage the use of booster seats, many states have enacted laws that require the use of either a child restraint with internal harness or a belt-positioning booster seat, but the specific age range covered by the laws varies by state. Previous studies have found evidence that booster seat laws are effective in reducing injury risk among children, but these studies primarily have included states with younger age requirements (e.g., ages 4-6) for booster seats. The objective of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of booster seat laws in several states that cover children through age 7 or 8.
Police-reported crash data from 5 states--Missouri, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Wyoming--were used to compare population-based injury rates, restraint use, and seating position among children before and after booster seat laws. The pre-law period was comprised of the 2 calendar years prior to the year of enactment of the booster seat law, and the post-law period was comprised of the 2 calendar years after the year of the effective start of the booster seat law. Effectiveness estimates were adjusted using a comparison group of children aged 9 to 12 in the same states who were not covered by the booster seat laws.
Among children in crashes who were affected by law changes in the 5 study states, the per capita rate of children using child safety seats (either a harnessed child restraint or booster seat) increased nearly 3 times, and the per capita rate of children riding in rear seats increased 6 percent after the booster seat laws were implemented. Booster seat laws were associated with a 5 percent reduction in the per capita rate of children who sustained injuries of any severity and a 17 percent reduction in the per capita rate of children who sustained fatal or incapacitating injuries.
Results provide evidence that booster seat laws are effective in increasing the use of child safety seats, increasing the placement of children in rear seats, and reducing injuries, especially severe injuries, among children covered by the laws.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.