An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of 125 DNA repair genes in the Texas genome-wide association study of lung cancer with a replication for the XRCC4 SNPs.
ABSTRACT DNA repair genes are important for maintaining genomic stability and limiting carcinogenesis. We analyzed all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 125 DNA repair genes covered by the Illumina HumanHap300 (v1.1) BeadChips in a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 controls and replicated the top-hits of XRCC4 SNPs in an independent set of 597 cases and 611 controls in Texas populations. We found that six of 20 XRCC4 SNPs were associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer with a P-value of 0.01 or lower in the discovery dataset, of which the most significant SNP was rs10040363 (P for allelic test=4.89 x 10⁻⁴). Moreover, the data in this region allowed us to impute a potentially functional SNP rs2075685 (imputed P for allelic test=1.3 x 10⁻³). A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the rs2075685G>T change in the XRCC4 promoter increased expression of the gene. In the replication study of rs10040363, rs1478486, rs9293329, and rs2075685, however, only rs10040363 achieved a borderline association with a decreased risk of lung cancer in a dominant model (adjusted OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62-1.03 and P=0.079). In the final combined analysis of both the Texas GWAS discovery and replication datasets, the strength of the association was increased for rs10040363 (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.66-0.89, P(dominant)=5 x 10⁻⁴ and P for trend=5 x 10⁻⁴) and rs1478486 (adjusted OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.94, P(dominant)=6 x 10⁻³ and P for trend=3.5 x 10⁻³). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these XRCC4 SNPs with available data from published GWA studies of lung cancer with a total of 12,312 cases and 47,921 controls, in which none of these XRCC4 SNPs was associated with lung cancer risk. It appeared that rs2075685, although associated with increased expression of a reporter gene and lung cancer risk in the Texas populations, did not have an effect on lung cancer risk in other populations. This study underscores the importance of replication using published data in larger populations.
Article: Methods for meta-analysis in genetic association studies: a review of their potential and pitfalls.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Meta-analysis offers the opportunity to combine evidence from retrospectively accumulated or prospectively generated data. Meta-analyses may provide summary estimates and can help in detecting and addressing potential inconsistency between the combined datasets. Application of meta-analysis in genetic associations presents considerable potential and several pitfalls. In this review, we present basic principles of meta-analytic methods, adapted for human genome epidemiology. We describe issues that arise in the retrospective or the prospective collection of relevant data through various sources, common traps to consider in the appraisal of evidence and potential biases that may interfere. We describe the relative merits and caveats for common methods used to trace inconsistency across studies along with possible reasons for non-replication of proposed associations. Different statistical models may be employed to combine data and some common misconceptions may arise in the process. Several meta-analysis diagnostics are often applied or misapplied in the literature, and we comment on their use and limitations. An alternative to overcome limitations arising from retrospective combination of data from published studies is to create networks of research teams working in the same field and perform collaborative meta-analyses of individual participant data, ideally on a prospective basis. We discuss the advantages and the challenges inherent in such collaborative approaches. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases and traits, provided its methods are properly applied and interpreted.Human Genetics 03/2008; 123(1):1-14. · 5.07 Impact Factor
Article: Safety and efficacy of contrast-enhanced MRI in the brain, head and neck: gadodiamide injection versus gadopentate dimeglumine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gadodiamide injection, a non ionic MRI contrast medium in comparison with the ionic agent gadopentate dimeglumine. Two groups of 50 patients with known or suspected lesions of the brain or head and neck were enrolled in a double -blind, randomised trial. In the gadopentate dimeglumine group three patients reported four adverse events, and in the gadodiamide injection group, four patients reported four side effects. All events were minor. Two radiologists analyzed pre and post-contrast MR images. The parameters evaluated were the number of lesions, delineation of the lesion, gain of diagnostic information, and final diagnosis. Both contrast media gave identical diagnostic information.Journal belge de radiologie 11/1997; 80(5):225-8.
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ABSTRACT: To ensure the high-fidelity transmission of genetic information, cells have evolved mechanisms to monitor genome integrity. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating a complex DNA-damage-response pathway that includes cell-cycle arrest, the transcriptional and post-transcriptional activation of a subset of genes including those associated with DNA repair, and, under some circumstances, the triggering of programmed cell death. An inability to respond properly to, or to repair, DNA damage leads to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance the rate of cancer development. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly clear that deficiencies in DNA-damage signaling and repair pathways are fundamental to the etiology of most, if not all, human cancers. Here we describe recent progress in our understanding of how cells detect and signal the presence and repair of one particularly important form of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation-the DNA double-strand break (DSB). Moreover, we discuss how tumor suppressor proteins such as p53, ATM, Brca1 and Brca2 have been linked to such pathways, and how accumulating evidence is connecting deficiencies in cellular responses to DNA DSBs with tumorigenesis.Nature Genetics 04/2001; 27(3):247-54. · 35.53 Impact Factor