Perceived risk associated with ecstasy use: A latent class analysis approach

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205-1900, USA.
Addictive behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 05/2011; 36(5):551-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.01.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study aims to define categories of perceived health problems among ecstasy users based on observed clustering of their perceptions of ecstasy-related health problems. Data from a community sample of ecstasy users (n=402) aged 18 to 30, in Ohio, was used in this study. Data was analyzed via Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and Regression. This study identified five different subgroups of ecstasy users based on their perceptions of health problems they associated with their ecstasy use. Almost one third of the sample (28.9%) belonged to a class with "low level of perceived problems" (Class 4). About one fourth (25.6%) of the sample (Class 2), had high probabilities of "perceiving problems on sexual-related items", but generally low or moderate probabilities of perceiving problems in other areas. Roughly one-fifth of the sample (21.1%, Class 1) had moderate probabilities of perceiving ecstasy health-related problems in all areas. A small proportion of respondents (11.9%, Class 5) had high probabilities of reporting "perceived memory and cognitive problems", and of perceiving "ecstasy-related problems in all areas" (12.4%, Class 3). A large proportion of ecstasy users perceive either low or moderate risk associated with their ecstasy use. It is important to further investigate whether lower levels of risk perception are associated with persistence of ecstasy use.

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Available from: Silvia Saboia Martins, Sep 25, 2015
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    • "Furthermore, this research highlights the need to develop a more comprehensive, integrated and multisubstance perspective for public health interventions (EMCDDA, 2009). Moreover the application of model-based classification methods, such as latent class analysis, could be a useful way to investigate polydrug users in depth, as has been undertaken in previous research with alcohol and other drugs (Blow et al., 2011; Martins, Carlson, Alexandre, & Falck, 2011; Schwartz, Wetzler, Swanson, & Sung, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study examined the types of polydrug use among Spanish adolescents. Method: 1501 high school students (50.6% female) aged 12 to 17years old (mean age=14.03, SD=1.28), from public schools in the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain), completed the survey. Results: In the previous six months 20.9% of the Spanish adolescents used alcohol, 18.8% tobacco, 10.5% cannabis and 0.7% cocaine. Specifically, 28.6% of the sample (n=429; 29% males and 28.2% females) used at least one drug and 13.9% reported polydrug use (n=208; 12.6% males and 15.1% females). The present research also found that the most critical ages for starting polydrug use were 14 and 15years old. More than one quarter (27.9%) of the adolescent polydrug users were type A (tobacco and alcohol), 67.8% were type B (cannabis together with tobacco and/or alcohol) and 3.4% were type C (cannabis together with tobacco and/or alcohol, and cocaine). Conclusions: These results suggest that Spanish adolescents, particularly males, commence polydrug use at an earlier age than other European adolescents. Early preventative strategies and a multisubstance perspective are greatly needed in Spain to avoid the initiation of polydrug use or to prevent progress onto heavier drugs.
    Addictive behaviors 09/2012; 38(3):1605-1609. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.09.007 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "The authors also concluded that, although some predictors were nonsignificant or demonstrated only weak associations with substance abuse outcomes, existing theories contribute to an understanding of Native Americans' substance use problems. Individuals who underestimate the risk associated with the use of alcohol and illicit drugs are also likely to use them more often than are those who recognize the harm that use can cause (Leung et al. 2010; Martins et al. 2011). Adolescents' perceptions of substance use are shaped by various influences such as media, neighborhood characteristics , family members' attitudes, and friends' substance use behaviors (Gibbons and Gerrard 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents 12-17 years of age, using combined datasets from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2006-2009, N = 46,675, 48.77 % female). Native American adolescents displayed the highest rate of past-month binge drinking and past-year illicit drug use (14.06 and 30.91 %, respectively). Results of a logistic regression that included seven predictors of social bonding, individual views of substance use, and delinquent peer affiliations showed that friendships with delinquent peers and negative views of substance use were associated significantly with both substance abuse outcomes among White and Mixed-Race adolescents and, to a lesser extent, Native American adolescents. The association of parental disapproval with binge drinking was stronger for White than for Native American adolescents. Greater attention to specific measures reflecting racial groups' contextual and historical differences may be needed to delineate mechanisms that discourage substance abuse among at-risk minority adolescent populations.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 07/2012; 41(11):1426-41. DOI:10.1007/s10964-012-9789-0 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patterns of heroin and cocaine use vary and may be associated with unique risk factors for bloodborne infections. Latent class analysis identified sub-populations of 552 heroin and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland. Using latent class regression, these classes were analyzed for associations with demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, Hepatitis C, and HIV. Three classes were found: Crack/Nasal-Heroin users (43.5%), Polysubstance users (34.8%), and Heroin Injectors (21.8%). Compared to Polysubstance users, Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were almost 7 times more likely to identify as Black (OR=6.97, 95% CI=4.35-11.2). Sharing needles was over 2.5 times more likely among Polysubstance users than among Heroin Injectors (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.49-4.75). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were 2.5 times more likely than Polysubstance users to exchange drugs for sex (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.22-5.13). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were less likely than Heroin Injectors to have Hepatitis C (OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.06-0.18), but no significant differences were found for HIV. Subpopulations of cocaine and heroin users differed in demographic classifications, HIV-risk behaviors, and Hepatitis C infection. All subpopulations included substantial numbers of HIV-positive individuals. Findings provide further evidence that non-injection drug users face significant infectious disease risk.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 10/2011; 122(3):220-7. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.001 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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