Recent progress and continuing challenges in bio-fuel cells. Part I: Enzymatic cells
ABSTRACT Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and cathode), as well as cell configurations are discussed. A detailed summary of recently developed enzymatic fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. In a companion review (Part II), new developments in microbial fuel cell technologies are reviewed in the context of fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O(2) reduction.
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ABSTRACT: Gold nanoparticles provided faster electron transfer in the circuit.•The maximum power density of 5 μW cm− 2 was generated at + 0.56 V cell potential.•The cell can be easily operated for in vivo mediums.Materials Science and Engineering C 02/2015; 47. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.10.077 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Co2Al-ABTS layered double hydroxides and associated Co2Al-ABTS@graphene composite were prepared in one pot technique by in situ coprecipitation. The as-obtained materials were then fully characterized by means of Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transformed InfraRed and Scanning Electron Microscopy confirming the intercalation of azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) between the LDH layers. Their electrochemical properties, according to Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy data, were improved compared to Zn2Al-ABTS reference material. Co2Al-ABTS hybrid LDH was found to combine both electronic transfers: interlayer provided by the presence of ABTS and intralayer due to the Co redox species. Moreover, an improvement of electronic transfer between the LDH particles was further achieved by addition of graphene. The resulting composite assemblies were tested for the first time as oxygen bioelectrode based on bilirubin oxidase. This original approach gives rise to enhanced electroenzymatic currents (�2.5) for oxygen reduction at 0 V and pH 7.0 as regard to that obtained for the reference laccase/LDH-ABTS based bioelectrode at pH 5.5.Electrochimica Acta 01/2015; 158:113-120. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.01.132 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recently synthesized polypropylene-g-polyethylene glycol polymer was used for the first time as the working electrode of a fuel cell. Electrodes were prepared for unmediated and mediated enzymatic reactions including ferrocene as the mediator. Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was used as the anodic and cathodic enzymes for the working electrodes, respectively. The biofuel cell was operated using glucose as the fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Electrochemical results demonstrated that the catalytic efficiency of the ferrocene based cathode was approximately 100-fold higher than that of an unmediated cathode. The mediated fuel cell electrodes yielded a power density of 65 nW/cm2 at a cell potential of +560 mV.Analytical Letters 03/2014; 47(6). DOI:10.1080/00032719.2013.860536 · 0.98 Impact Factor