Recent progress and continuing challenges in bio-fuel cells. Part I: Enzymatic cells
ABSTRACT Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and cathode), as well as cell configurations are discussed. A detailed summary of recently developed enzymatic fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. In a companion review (Part II), new developments in microbial fuel cell technologies are reviewed in the context of fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O(2) reduction.
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ABSTRACT: Co2Al-ABTS layered double hydroxides and associated Co2Al-ABTS@graphene composite were prepared in one pot technique by in situ coprecipitation. The as-obtained materials were then fully characterized by means of Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transformed InfraRed and Scanning Electron Microscopy confirming the intercalation of azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) between the LDH layers. Their electrochemical properties, according to Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy data, were improved compared to Zn2Al-ABTS reference material. Co2Al-ABTS hybrid LDH was found to combine both electronic transfers: interlayer provided by the presence of ABTS and intralayer due to the Co redox species. Moreover, an improvement of electronic transfer between the LDH particles was further achieved by addition of graphene. The resulting composite assemblies were tested for the first time as oxygen bioelectrode based on bilirubin oxidase. This original approach gives rise to enhanced electroenzymatic currents (�2.5) for oxygen reduction at 0 V and pH 7.0 as regard to that obtained for the reference laccase/LDH-ABTS based bioelectrode at pH 5.5.Electrochimica Acta 01/2015; 158:113-120. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.01.132 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multi-dimensional steady-state and dynamic models for an enzymatic fuel cell are developed. In the model system, the biocatalyst (glucose oxidase) is immobilized in a porous electrically conducting anode, while glucose and a mediator are supplied from a solution. A platinum air-breathing cathode and a Nafion membrane complete the cell unit. Detailed mass and charge balances are combined with a model for the ping-pang reaction mechanism in the anode, together with oxygen reduction in the cathode. The effects of enzyme oxidation by dissolved oxygen in the anode (a competing side reaction) are also included. The model is validated against experimental polarization and power curves, and the steady-state performance under different conditions is analyzed and discussed. The simulation results demonstrate some of the possible limitations of enzymatic fuel cells and provide insights into the spatial distributions of the reactants, potentials and current.Electrochimica Acta 12/2013; 112:386-393. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2013.08.044 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is widespread recognition that the use of energy in the twenty-first century must be sustainable. Because of its extraordinary flexibility, silica sol–gel chemistry offers the opportunity to create the novel materials and architectures which can lead to significant advances in renewable energy and energy storage technologies. In this paper, we review some of the significant contributions of silica sol–gel chemistry to these fields with particular emphasis on electrolytes and separators where sol–gel approaches to functionalization and encapsulation have been of central importance. Examples are presented in the areas of dye-sensitized solar cells, biofuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, redox flow batteries and electrochemical energy storage. Original work is also included for the sol–gel encapsulation of a room temperature ionic liquid to create a solid state electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors. In view of the critical importance of energy and the versatility of the sol–gel process, we expect the sol–gel field to play an increasingly important role in the development of sustainable energy generation and storage technologies.Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 05/2014; 70(2):203-215. DOI:10.1007/s10971-014-3299-3 · 1.55 Impact Factor