Association of ongoing drug and alcohol use with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy and higher risk of AIDS and death: results from ACTG 362.
ABSTRACT Drug and alcohol use have been associated with a worse prognosis in short-term and cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected populations, but longitudinal effects on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and clinical outcomes in advanced AIDS are less well characterized. We assessed self-reported drug and alcohol use in AIDS patients, and examined their association with non-adherence and death or disease progression in a multicenter observational study. We defined non-adherence as reporting missed ART doses in the 48 hours before study visits. The association between drug use and ART non-adherence was evaluated using repeated measures generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. The association between drug and alcohol use and time to new AIDS diagnosis or death was evaluated via Cox regression models, controlling for covariates including ART adherence. Of 643 participants enrolled between 1997 and 1999 and followed through 2007, at entry 39% reported ever using cocaine, 24% amphetamines, and 10% heroin. Ongoing drug use during study follow-up was reported by 9% using cocaine, 4% amphetamines, and 1% heroin. Hard drug (cocaine, amphetamines, or heroin) users had 2.1 times higher odds (p=0.001) of ART non-adherence in GEE models and 2.5 times higher risk (p=0.04) of AIDS progression or death in Cox models. Use of hard drugs was attenuated as a risk factor for AIDS progression or death after controlling for non-adherence during follow-up (HR = 2.11, p=0.08), but was still suggestive of a possible adherence-independent mechanism of harm. This study highlights the need to continuously screen and treat patients for drug use as a part of ongoing HIV care.
Article: Cocaine and sigma-1 receptors modulate HIV infection, chemokine receptors, and the HPA axis in the huPBL-SCID model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cocaine is associated with an increased risk for, and progression of, clinical disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A human xenograft model, in which human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were implanted into severe combined immunodeficiency mice (huPBL-SCID) and infected with a HIV reporter virus, was used to investigate the biological interactions between cocaine and HIV infection. Systemic administration of cocaine (5 mg/kg/d) significantly increased the percentage of HIV-infected PBL (two- to threefold) and viral load (100- to 300-fold) in huPBL-SCID mice. Despite the capacity for cocaine to increase corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in control mice, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was suppressed in HIV-infected animals, and corticosterone levels were further decreased when animals were exposed to HIV and cocaine. Activating huPBL in vitro in the presence of 10(-8) M cocaine increased expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) coreceptors. Expression of CCR5 was also increased at early time-points in the huPBL-SCID model following systemic exposure to cocaine (54.1+/-9.4% increase over control, P<0.01). This effect preceded the boost in viral infection and waned as HIV infection progressed. Cocaine has been shown to mediate immunosuppressive effects by activating sigma-1 receptors in immune cells in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these reports, a selective sigma-1 antagonist, BD1047, blocked the effects of cocaine on HIV replication in the huPBL-SCID mouse. Our results suggest that systemic exposure to cocaine can enhance HIV infection in vivo by activating sigma-1 receptors and by modulating the expression of HIV coreceptors.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 12/2005; 78(6):1198-203. · 4.99 Impact Factor
Article: Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There have been no previous nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and drug use among adults receiving care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States. It is also not known which clinical and sociodemographic factors are associated with these disorders. We enrolled a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 adults receiving care for HIV in the United States in 1996. Participants were administered a brief structured psychiatric instrument that screened for psychiatric disorders (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorders, and panic attacks) and drug use during the previous 12 months. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with screening positive for any psychiatric disorder and drug dependence were examined in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Nearly half of the sample screened positive for a psychiatric disorder, nearly 40% reported using an illicit drug other than marijuana, and more than 12% screened positive for drug dependence during the previous 12 months. Factors independently associated with screening positive for a psychiatric disorder included number of HIV-related symptoms, illicit drug use, drug dependence, heavy alcohol use, and being unemployed or disabled. Factors independently associated with screening positive for drug dependence included having many HIV-related symptoms, being younger, being heterosexual, having frequent heavy alcohol use, and screening positive for a psychiatric disorder. Many people infected with HIV may also have psychiatric and/or drug dependence disorders. Clinicians may need to actively identify those at risk and work with policymakers to ensure the availability of appropriate care for these treatable disorders.Archives of General Psychiatry 09/2001; 58(8):721-8. · 12.02 Impact Factor