Optimizing the use of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: consensus statement

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (Impact Factor: 9.38). 02/2011; 25(5):749-60. DOI: 10.1038/leu.2011.3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An expert panel convened to reach a consensus regarding the optimal use of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone (Len/Dex) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). On the basis of the available evidence, the panel agreed that Len/Dex is a valid and effective treatment option for most patients with RRMM. As with other therapies, using Len/Dex at first relapse is more effective regarding response rate and durability than using it after multiple salvage therapies. Len/Dex may be beneficial regardless of patient age, disease stage and renal function, although the starting dose of lenalidomide should be adjusted for renal impairment and cytopenias. Long-term treatment until there is evidence of disease progression may be recommended at the best-tolerated doses of both lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Recommendations regarding the prevention and management of adverse events, particularly venous thromboembolism and myelosuppression, were provided on the basis of the available evidence and practical experience of panel members. Ongoing trials will provide more insight into the effects of continuous lenalidomide-based therapy in myeloma.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: International collaborative research is a mechanism for improving the development of disease-specific therapies and for improving health at the population level. However, limited data are available to assess the trends in research output related to orphan diseases. We used bibliometric mapping and clustering methods to illustrate the level of fragmentation in myeloma research and the development of collaborative efforts. Publication data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science were retrieved for 2005-2009 and followed until 2013. We created a database of multiple myeloma publications, and we analysed impact and co-authorship density to identify scientific collaborations, developments, and international key players over time. The global annual publication volume for studies on multiple myeloma increased from 1,144 in 2005 to 1,628 in 2009, which represents a 43% increase. This increase is high compared to the 24% and 14% increases observed for lymphoma and leukaemia. The major proportion (>90% of publications) was from the US and EU over the study period. The output and impact in terms of citations, identified several successful groups with a large number of intra-cluster collaborations in the US and EU. The US-based myeloma clusters clearly stand out as the most productive and highly cited, and the European Myeloma Network members exhibited a doubling of collaborative publications from 2005 to 2009, still increasing up to 2013. Multiple myeloma research output has increased substantially in the past decade. The fragmented European myeloma research activities based on national or regional groups are progressing, but they require a broad range of targeted research investments to improve multiple myeloma health care.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116966. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116966 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Blood 10/2014; 124(15):2467-8. DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-06-583302 · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with myeloma develop localized and generalized bone loss leading to hypercalcaemia, accelerated osteoporosis, vertebral wedge fractures, other pathological fractures, spinal cord compression and bone pain. Bone loss is mediated by a variety of biological modifiers including osteoclast-activating factors (OAF) and osteoblast (OB) inhibitory factors produced either directly by malignant plasma cells (MPCs) or as a consequence of their interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM). Raised levels of OAFs such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 stimulate bone resorption by recruiting additional osteoclasts. Via opposing mechanisms, increases in OB inhibitory factors, such as dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), soluble frizzled-related protein-3 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), suppress bone formation by inhibiting the differentiation and recruitment of OBs. These changes result in an uncoupling of physiological bone remodelling, leading to myeloma bone disease (MBD). Moreover, the altered BMM provides a fertile ground for the growth and survival of MPCs. Current clinical management of MBD is both reactive (to pain and fractures) and preventive, with bisphosphonates (BPs) being the mainstay of pharmacological treatment. However, side effects and uncertainties associated with BPs warrant the search for more targeted treatments for MBD. This review will summarize recent developments in understanding the intimate relationship between MBD and the BMM and the novel ways in which they are being therapeutically targeted.
    British Medical Bulletin 09/2014; 111(1):117-38. DOI:10.1093/bmb/ldu016 · 3.95 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 12, 2014