Comparison of the Neuroapoptotic Properties of Equipotent Anesthetic Concentrations of Desflurane, Isoflurane, or Sevoflurane in Neonatal Mice
ABSTRACT Volatile anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures and imaging studies in millions of children every year. Neuronal cell death after prolonged exposure to isoflurane in developing animals has raised serious concerns regarding its safe use in children. Although sevoflurane and desflurane are becoming more popular for pediatric anesthesia, their cytotoxic effects have not been compared with those of isoflurane. Accordingly, using newborn mice, the current study established the respective potencies of desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane and then compared equipotent doses of these anesthetics regarding their effects on cortical neuroapoptosis.
Minimum alveolar concentrations were determined in littermates (aged 7-8 days, n = 42) using tail-clamp stimulation in a bracketing study design. By using equipotent doses of approximately 0.6 minimum alveolar concentration, another group of littermates was randomly assigned to receive desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane or to fast in room air for 6 h. After exposure, animals (n = 47) were euthanized, neocortical apoptotic neuronal cell death was quantified, and caspase 3 activity was compared between the four groups.
The minimum alveolar concentration was determined to be 12.2% for desflurane, 2.7% for isoflurane, and 5.4% for sevoflurane. After a 6-h exposure to approximately 0.6 minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, neuronal cell death and apoptotic activity were significantly increased, irrespective of the specific anesthetic used.
In neonatal mice, equipotent doses of the three commonly used inhaled anesthetics demonstrated similar neurotoxic profiles, suggesting that developmental neurotoxicity is a common feature of all three drugs and cannot be avoided by switching to newer agents.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recording technique. Methods. Wide types of Drosophila (canton-s flies) were allocated to control and sevoflurane groups randomly. Sevoflurane groups (1% sevoflurane; 2% sevoflurane; 3% sevoflurane) were exposed to sevoflurane and the exposure lasted 5 hours, respectively. All flies were subjected to electrophysiology experiment using patch clamp 24 hours after exposure. Results. The results showed that, 24 hours after sevoflurane exposure, frequency but not the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was significantly reduced . Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism and found that calcium currents density, which partially regulated the frequency of mEPSCs, was significantly reduced after sevoflurane exposure . Conclusions. All these suggested that sevoflurane could alter the mEPSCs that are related to synaptic plasticity partially through modulating calcium channel early after sevoflurane exposure.01/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/485709
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ABSTRACT: Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. © The Author(s) 2015.ASN Neuro 04/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.1177/1759091415575845 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: General anesthesia in patients with or at risk for neuronal injury remains challenging due to the controversial influence of volatile anesthetics on neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane would exert variable degrees of neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo via activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75).Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2014; 119(6):1429. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000488 · 3.42 Impact Factor