The acute phase protein, α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), has been proposed to have a role in immunomodulation and to be a nonspecific antimicrobial agent. We suggest that AGP may be increased in dogs with pyometra and possibly to a greater extent in dogs also manifesting signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
Our objectives were to evaluate serum AGP concentrations in dogs diagnosed with pyometra compared with clinically healthy female dogs and to determine if AGP concentrations were correlated with severity of disease.
Twenty-six dogs with pyometra and 18 clinically healthy intact female dogs were included in this prospective study. A diagnosis of pyometra was verified by histopathologic examination after ovariohysterectomy in the pyometra group. A commercially available single radial immunodiffusion test was used for AGP analysis. Clinical findings, laboratory variables, and hospitalization times were compared.
Mean AGP concentration in dogs with pyometra (1943 ± 913 mg/L, mean ± SD), was significantly higher (P<.001) than in healthy dogs (495 ± 204 mg/L). Mean AGP concentration in dogs in the pyometra group with (n=18) or without (n=8) SIRS did not differ. Animals with a prolonged hospital stay had higher AGP concentrations.
Pyometra was associated with increased serum concentrations of the acute phase protein AGP. AGP concentrations were associated with severity of disease as measured by duration of hospitalization. As AGP binds basic drugs, further studies of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic propreties in cases of pyometra may be of clinical interest.
"Thus, biomarkers of inflammation are being increasingly used in humans and veterinary clinical practice for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and to follow treatment response and postoperative recovery  . The inflammatory biomarkers most commonly used in veterinary medicine have been acute-phase proteins   . Among these, C-reactive protein (CRP), a major acute-phase protein in dogs, and many other mediators such as insulin-like growth factor and cytokines have been widely investigated    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares serum concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in healthy bitches and bitches with bacterial uterine infection (pyometra). The effects of surgery were also assessed by measuring these variables in both groups of dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Presurgery mean (±SD) TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations and IDO activity were 68.44 ±21.77 μmol/L, 2.00 ±0.33 μmol/L, 112.11 ±111.91 μmol/L and 29.22 ±10.10, respectively, in the healthy dogs; and 40.16 ±12.11 μmol/L, 8.27 ±3.94 μmol/L, 411.11 ±199.60 μmol/L and 205.92, respectively, in the dogs with pyometra. TRP and KYN levels had normalized upon suture removal (10 days after surgery) though IDO activity and KYNA concentrations remained elevated during the postoperative period compared to presurgery values in both study groups. Our results suggest that KYNA concentrations and IDO activity could be useful indicators of the inflammation induced by pyometra and could be also used to monitor recovery following ovariohysterectomy in both healthy dogs and dogs with pyometra.
"Pyometra is one of the most common diseases of the reproductive system in bitches, predominantly affecting older dogs in the metoestral phase of cycle . Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which often accompanies pyometra, is a response of the organism to secondary infection in the uterus caused by Escherichia coli    . Prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment increase survival chances. "
"Hormone disorders cause cystic hypertrophy of the uterine mucous membrane glands leading to their hyperactivity, which favors bacterial infection . Bacterial uterine infection (usually caused by Escherichia coli) is generally accompanied by endotoxemia, sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) associated with multiple organ dysfunction and increased mortality rates     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyometra is a life-threatening reproductive disorder that affects the uterus of female dogs.
This study was designed to identify the possible indicators of uterine in ammation by comparing C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations in uterine arterial and peripheral venous blood in bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. CRP, SAA, and Hp concentrations were higher in bitches with closed-servix pyometra irrespective of the site of blood collection. Higheracute-phaseprotein concentrations were observed inperipheral compared with uterine arterial blood in bitches with closed-cervixpyometra,whereas the levels were comparable in dogs with open-cervix
pyometra. Our results indicate that mean acute-phase protein concentrations differ according to pyometra type/severity and blood source and suggest the possible use of peripheral blood levels of CRP, SAA, and Hp monitoring inflammation during the course of pyometra.
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