The ability of different areas of the skin to absorb heat from a locally applied heat source: the impact of diabetes.
ABSTRACT When heat is applied to the skin, heat is conducted away because of the latent heat transfer properties of the skin and an increase in skin circulation, but little attention has been paid to the heat transfer properties of skin in different areas of the body and in people with diabetes. research design: Thirty subjects in the age range of 20-75 years had a thermode (44°C) applied to the skin of their arm, leg, foot, and back for 6 min to assess the heat transfer characteristics of skin in these four areas of the body. Skin blood flow and skin temperature were monitored over the 6-min period.
For the younger subjects, blood flow was not statistically different in response to heat in three areas of the body, starting at less than 200 flux measured by a laser Doppler imager and ending at approximately 1,200 flux after heat exposure. The foot had higher resting blood flow and higher blood flow in response to heat. Temperature and the rate of rise of temperature were also not different in any of the areas. The heat added to raise temperature, however, varied by body region. The arm required the least, whereas the leg and foot required the most. For the older group and subjects with diabetes, the heat required for any region of the body was much less to achieve the same increase in skin temperature, and blood flows were also much less; the subjects with diabetes showed the least blood flow and required the fewest calories to heat the skin. Whereas the foot required the greatest number of calories to heat the tissue in younger and older subjects, in subjects with diabetes, the foot took proportionally fewer calories.
Thus, specific areas of the body are damaged more by diabetes than other areas.
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ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium plays an integral role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the regulation of blood flow, vascular tone, and platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to see if there were any differences in endothelial function between Koreans and Caucasians. This was accomplished by 2 measures of endothelial function--the response to local heat and the response to vascular occlusion. Ten Caucasian and 10 Korean male and female subjects participated (<35 years old). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 3 temperatures (38°C, 40°C and 42°C) and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 3 different temperatures (38°C, 40°C, and 42°C), the skin blood flows were significantly higher for all temperatures in Caucasians as compared with Koreans, with peak blood flow of 223±48.1, 413.7±132.1, and 517.4±135.8 flux in Caucasians and 126.4±41.3, 251±77.9, and 398±97.2 flux in Koreans, respectively (p=0.001). Results of this study support the idea that the skin blood flow response to occlusion was significantly higher in Caucasians (peak 411.9±88.9 flux) than Koreans (peak 332.4±75.8 flux) (p=0.016). These findings suggest that Koreans may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians, which may be explained, in part, by genetic variations between the 2 ethnic groups.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 06/2012; 18(6):CR337-43. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background It is well established that there is a reduction in the skin blood flow (SBF) in response to heat with age and diabetes. While it is known that high BMI creates a stress on the cardiovascular system and increases the risk of all cause of morbidity and mortality, little is known of the effect of high BMI on SBF response to heat. Since diabetes is associated with age and a higher BMI, the interrelationship between age, BMI and SBF needs to be investigated to better understand the contribution diabetes alone has to endothelial impairment. Material and Methods This study examined the SBF to heat in young and old people with low and high BMI and people with diabetes with high BMI to determine the contribution these variables have on SBF. Subjects were ten young and older people with BMI <20 and ten young and older people with BMI >20 and ten subjects with diabetes with BMI >20. The SBF response, above the quadriceps, was determined during a 6 minutes exposure to heat at 44°C. Results Even in young people, SBF after the stress of heat exposure was reduced in subjects with a high BMI. The effect of BMI was greatest in young people and lowest in older people and people with diabetes; in people with diabetes, BMI was a more significant variable than diabetes in causing impairment of blood flow to heat. BMI, for example, was responsible for 49% of the reduction in blood flow after stress heat exposure (R=-0.7) while ageing only accounted for 16% of the blood flow reduction (R=-0.397). Conclusions These results would suggest the importance of keeping BMI low not only in people with diabetes to minimize further circulatory vascular damage, but also in young people to diminish long term circulatory vascular compromise.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2013; 19:257-63. · 1.22 Impact Factor