Exploring the adult life of men and women with fragile X syndrome: results from a national survey.

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Impact Factor: 2.08). 01/2011; 116(1):16-35. DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-116.1.16
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was the strongest predictor of independence in adult life for men, whereas ability to interact appropriately was the strongest predictor for women. Co-occurring mental health conditions influenced independence in adult life for men and women, in particular, autism spectrum disorders for men and affect problems for women. Services for adults with fragile X syndrome should not only target functional skills but interpersonal skills and co-occurring mental health conditions.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study aimed to develop a utility index (the ABC-UI) from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C), for use in quantifying the benefit of emerging treatments for fragile X syndrome (FXS). Methods The ABC-C is a proxy-completed assessment of behaviour and is a widely used measure in FXS. A subset of ABC-C items across seven dimensions was identified to include in health state descriptions. This item reduction process was based on item performance, factor analysis and Rasch analysis performed on an observational study dataset, and consultation with five clinical experts and a methodological expert. Dimensions were combined into health states using an orthogonal design and valued using time trade-off (TTO), with lead-time TTO methods used where TTO indicated a state valued as worse than dead. Preference weights were estimated using mean, individual level, ordinary least squares and random-effects maximum likelihood estimation [RE (MLE)] regression models. Results A representative sample of the UK general public (n = 349; mean age 35.8 years, 58.2 % female) each valued 12 health states. Mean observed values ranged from 0.92 to 0.16 for best to worst health states. The RE (MLE) model performed best based on number of significant coefficients and mean absolute error of 0.018. Mean utilities predicted by the model covered a similar range to that observed. Conclusions The ABC-UI estimates a wide range of utilities from patient-level FXS ABC-C data, allowing estimation of FXS health-related quality of life impact for economic evaluation from an established FXS clinical trial instrument.
    Quality of Life Research 07/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s11136-014-0759-8 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS.
    11/2014; 3(4):118-33. DOI:10.5582/irdr.2014.01024
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic symptomatology. Results showed that higher levels of autistic symptomatology were associated with lower levels of competence in independent living skills in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. These data indicated that the relationship between autistic symptomatology and independent living skills was syndrome-specific. Early intervention strategies that address autistic symptomatology are sorely needed to improve functional outcomes in this population.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2342-0 · 3.34 Impact Factor

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