The TP73 and TP63 genes are members of the p53 tumor suppressor family and are expressed in different N-terminal isoforms either with proapoptotic (transactivation domain, TA) and antiapoptotic (N-terminally truncated, ΔN) function. Unlike p53, the role of p73 and p63 in tumor is controversial. It has been recently hypothesized that altered ΔN:TA expression ratio, rather than single isoform overexpression, plays a role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including lung cancer.
Isoform-specific, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis on matched cancer and corresponding normal tissues from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) have been performed aiming to explore the expression levels of each p63 and p73 N-terminal isoforms and their ΔN:TA expression ratio.
For both p63 and p73, a N-terminal isoform-specific modulation that alter ΔN:TA isoform balance was identified. In particular, ΔNp63 isoform was significantly up-modulated, whereas TAp63 was slightly down-modulated in NSCLC specimens. Likewise, Δ2p73 and Δ2/3p73 were up-modulated, whereas ΔNp73 and ΔN'p73 isoforms were down-modulated. Moreover, a higher TAp63 and ΔN'p73 transcripts expression, detected in the normal tissue surrounding the tumors, correlates with poor patient outcome, representing independent prognostic factors for overall survival (ΔN'p73: p = 0.049, hazard ratio = 3.091, 95% confidence interval = 1.005-9.524 and TAp63: p = 0.001, hazard ratio = 8.091, 95% confidence interval = 2.254-29.05).
Our findings suggest that p63 and p73 altered ΔN:TA expression ratio occurs in NSCLC likely contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor.
"Perhaps because it has so many functions and partners, TP53 is actually idiosyncratic in its regulation and the two probes designed to this gene lie in an small isolated graph component consisting of 3 transcripts (together with YWHAE a protein known to associated with P53). By contrast, the related TP73 gene is strongly enriched in bronchial epithelium (Cluster 11) and has been ascribed roles as a tumour suppressor in the lung
. More importantly, their analysis is based largely upon the limited perspective of yeast and/or the still limited information content of GO terms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specialisation of mammalian cells in time and space requires genes associated with specific pathways and functions to be co-ordinately expressed. Here we have combined a large number of publically available microarray datasets derived from human primary cells and analysed large correlation graphs of these data.
Using the network analysis tool BioLayout Express3D we identify robust co-associations of genes expressed in a wide variety of cell lineages. We discuss the biological significance of a number of these associations, in particular the coexpression of key transcription factors with the genes that they are likely to control.
We consider the regulation of genes in human primary cells and specifically in the human mononuclear phagocyte system. Of particular note is the fact that these data do not support the identity of putative markers of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, nor classification of M1 and M2 activation states, a current subject of debate within immunological field. We have provided this data resource on the BioGPS web site (www.biogps.org) and on macrophages.com (www.macrophages.com).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 mutations, occurring in two-thirds of all human cancers, confer a gain of function phenotype, including the ability to form metastasis, the determining feature in the prognosis of most human cancer. This effect seems mediated at least partially by its ability to physically interact with p63, thus affecting a cell invasion pathway, and accordingly, p63 is deregulated in human cancers. In addition, p63, as an 'epithelial organizer', directly impinges on epidermal mesenchimal transition, stemness, senescence, cell death and cell cycle arrest, all determinant in cancer, and thus p63 affects chemosensitivity and chemoresistance. This demonstrates an important role for p63 in cancer development and its progression, and the aim of this review is to set this new evidence that links p63 to metastasis within the context of the long conserved other functions of p63.
Cell death and differentiation 09/2011; 18(9):1487-99. DOI:10.1038/cdd.2011.81 · 8.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53, TP63, and TP73 genes comprise the p53 family. Each gene produces protein isoforms through multiple mechanisms including extensive alternative mRNA splicing. Accumulating evidence shows that these isoforms play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes in normal cells. Their abnormal expression contributes to tumorigenesis and has a profound effect on tumor response to curative therapy. This paper is an overview of isoform diversity in the p53 family and its role in cancer.
Journal of nucleic acids 01/2012; 2012(2090-0201):687359. DOI:10.1155/2012/687359
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