p63 and p73 Isoform Expression in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Corresponding Morphological Normal Lung Tissue
ABSTRACT The TP73 and TP63 genes are members of the p53 tumor suppressor family and are expressed in different N-terminal isoforms either with proapoptotic (transactivation domain, TA) and antiapoptotic (N-terminally truncated, ΔN) function. Unlike p53, the role of p73 and p63 in tumor is controversial. It has been recently hypothesized that altered ΔN:TA expression ratio, rather than single isoform overexpression, plays a role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including lung cancer.
Isoform-specific, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis on matched cancer and corresponding normal tissues from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) have been performed aiming to explore the expression levels of each p63 and p73 N-terminal isoforms and their ΔN:TA expression ratio.
For both p63 and p73, a N-terminal isoform-specific modulation that alter ΔN:TA isoform balance was identified. In particular, ΔNp63 isoform was significantly up-modulated, whereas TAp63 was slightly down-modulated in NSCLC specimens. Likewise, Δ2p73 and Δ2/3p73 were up-modulated, whereas ΔNp73 and ΔN'p73 isoforms were down-modulated. Moreover, a higher TAp63 and ΔN'p73 transcripts expression, detected in the normal tissue surrounding the tumors, correlates with poor patient outcome, representing independent prognostic factors for overall survival (ΔN'p73: p = 0.049, hazard ratio = 3.091, 95% confidence interval = 1.005-9.524 and TAp63: p = 0.001, hazard ratio = 8.091, 95% confidence interval = 2.254-29.05).
Our findings suggest that p63 and p73 altered ΔN:TA expression ratio occurs in NSCLC likely contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor.
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ABSTRACT: Background:TAp63 is a tumour-suppressor protein that is often underexpressed in various types of cancer. It has been shown to activate gene transcription depending on the transcription domain and to be closely related with metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that TAp63 suppresses metastasis in colon cancer cells through microRNA-133b.Methods:We evaluated the correlation of TAp63 and miR-133b with HT-29 and SW-620 cells and investigated the roles of TAp63 in the expression of RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. We further investigated the roles of TAp63-mediated invasion and migration of colon cancer cells.Results:TAp63 expression is downregulated in colon cancer, and microRNA-133b is a transcriptional target of TAp63. Furthermore, microRNA-133b is essential for the inhibitory effects of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, TAp63 inhibits cell migration and invasion through microRNA-133b. Correspondingly, the inhibitory effect of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin, vimentin, migration and invasion can be blocked by the microRNA-133b inhibitor.Conclusions:TAp63 and microRNA-133b were able to suppress the metastasis of colon cancer. Both TAp63 and microRNA-133b may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis in colon cancer metastasis and may provide unique therapeutic targets for this common malignancy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 4 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.118 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 03/2014; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.118 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sinonasal tract may give rise to a broad range of neoplasms that share a "small round blue cell" tumor (SBRCT) appearance on routine histology, but treatment strategies depend on precise tumor classification. Immunohistochemistry for p63 is often employed in the sinonasal SRBCT differential diagnosis because it is highly sensitive for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, p63 staining may be observed in other tumor types, a potential diagnostic pitfall. P40 is a more squamous-specific isoform of p63, and it may be more useful in distinguishing poorly differentiated SCC from its mimickers in the sinonasal tract. Immunohistochemistry for p40 and p63 was performed on 171 sinonasal neoplasms with SRBCT morphology: 73 SCCs (67 poorly differentiated, non-keratinizing, or basaloid types and 6 nasopharyngeal carcinomas), 46 esthesioneuroblastomas, 11 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs), 11 lymphomas, 9 melanomas, 7 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, 4 solid adenoid cystic carcinomas, 4 NUT midline carcinomas, 4 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and 2 small cell carcinomas. P40 was positive in 72 of 73 SCCs, and showed a diffuse distribution in all but one positive case. P40 immunoexpression was also observed in 13 of 46 (28 %) esthesioneuroblastomas, 6 of 11 (55 %) SNUCs, 2 of 4 (50 %) adenoid cystic carcinomas, 3 of 4 (75 %) NUT midline carcinomas, 1 of 2 (50 %) small cell carcinomas, and 1 of 4 (25 %) PNETs; in the non-SCC tumors, p40 staining was focal in most cases. P63 was positive in every p40-positive tumor. In addition, a p63+/p40- phenotype was seen 5 of 11 (45 %) lymphomas, 4 of 7 (57 %) alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, 1 of 4 (25 %) PNETs, and 3 of 46 (7 %) esthesioneuroblastomas. All sinonasal melanomas were negative for both markers. In the sinonasal SRBCT differential diagnosis, both p40 and p63 are highly sensitive for SCC, but p40 is more specific. Notably, p40 is consistently negative in lymphomas and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, two tumors that are frequently p63-positive. It must be remembered, however, that even diffuse p40 immunostaining is not entirely specific for the squamous phenotype, and therefore it should be utilized as part of an immunohistochemical panel.Head and Neck Pathology 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12105-013-0496-2
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ABSTRACT: p53 is an important tumor suppressor gene, which is stimulated by cellular stress like ionizing radiation, hypoxia, carcinogens, and oxidative stress. Upon activation, p53 leads to cell-cycle arrest and promotes DNA repair or induces apoptosis via several pathways. p63 and p73 are structural homologs of p53 that can act similarly to the protein and also hold functions distinct from p53. Today more than 40 different isoforms of the p53 family members are known. They result from transcription via different promoters and alternative splicing. Some isoforms have carcinogenic properties and mediate resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, expression patterns of the p53 family genes can offer prognostic information in several malignant tumors. Furthermore, the p53 family constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. Small molecules (e.g., Nutlins, RITA, PRIMA-1, and MIRA-1 among others) have been objects of intense research interest in recent years. They restore pro-apoptotic wild-type p53 function and were shown to break chemotherapeutic resistance. Due to p53 family interactions small molecules also influence p63 and p73 activity. Thus, the members of the p53 family are key players in the cellular stress response in cancer and are expected to grow in importance as therapeutic targets.