Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates ischemic AKI and increases expression of protective genes Nrf2, PPARγ, and HO-1.
ABSTRACT Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers expression of adaptive (protective) and maladaptive genes. Agents that increase expression of protective genes should provide a therapeutic benefit. We now report that bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates ischemic murine AKI as assessed by both renal function and pathology. BARD may exert its beneficial effect by increasing expression of genes previously shown to protect against ischemic AKI, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Although we found that BARD alone or ischemia-reperfusion alone increased expression of these genes, the greatest increase occurred after the combination of both ischemia-reperfusion and BARD. BARD had a different mode of action than other agents that regulate PPARγ and Nrf2. Thus we report that BARD regulates PPARγ, not by acting as a ligand but by increasing the amount of PPARγ mRNA and protein. This should increase ligand-independent effects of PPARγ. Similarly, BARD increased Nrf2 mRNA; this increased Nrf2 protein by mechanisms in addition to the prolongation of Nrf2 protein half-life previously reported. Finally, we localized expression of these protective genes after ischemia and BARD treatment. Using double-immunofluorescence staining for CD31 and Nrf2 or PPARγ, we found increased Nrf2 and PPARγ on glomerular endothelia in the cortex; Nrf2 was also present on cortical peritubular capillaries. In contrast, HO-1 was localized to different cells, i.e., tubules and interstitial leukocytes. Although Nrf2-dependent increases in HO-1 have been described, our data suggest that BARD's effects on tubular and leukocyte HO-1 during ischemic AKI may be Nrf2 independent. We also found that BARD ameliorated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Triterpenoids have been used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticancer, and anticarcinogenic properties. Bardoxolone methyl, the C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) known as CDDO-Me or RTA 402, is one of the derivatives of synthetic triterpenoids. CDDO-Me has been used for the treatment of chronic kidney disease, cancer (including leukemia and solid tumors), and other diseases. In this review, we will update our knowledge of the clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CDDO-Me, highlighting its clinical benefits and the underlying mechanisms involved. The role of the Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the therapeutic activities of CDDO-Me will be discussed. CDDO-Me contains α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups on rings A and C that can generate reversible adducts with the thiol groups of Cys residues in target proteins such as Keap1 and IκB kinase. At low nanomolar concentrations, CDDO-Me protects the cells against oxidative stress via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation, while CDDO-Me at low micromolar concentrations induces apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasinging intracellular glutathione levels. Through Keap1/Nrf2 and nuclear factor-κB pathways, this agent can modulate the activities of a number of important proteins that regulate inflammation, redox balance, cell proliferation and programmed cell death. In a Phase I trial in cancer patients, CDDO-Me was found to have a slow and saturable oral absorption, a relatively long terminal phase half-life (39 hours at 900 mg/day), nonlinearity (dose-dependent) at high doses (600-1,300 mg/day), and high interpatient variability. As a multifunctional agent, CDDO-Me has improved the renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes. CDDO-Me has shown a promising anticancer effect in a Phase I trial. This agent is generally well tolerated, but it may increase adverse cardiovascular events. Presently, it is being further tested for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease, cancer, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2075-2088. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S68872 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is featured by a progressive decline of kidney function and is mainly caused by chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. CKD is a complex disease due to cardiovascular complications and high morbidity; however, there is no single treatment to improve kidney function in CKD patients. Since biological markers representing oxidative stress are significantly elevated in CKD patients, oxidative stress is receiving attention as a contributing factor to CKD pathology. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NRF2) is a predominant transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide array of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, thiol molecules and their generating enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, and stress response proteins, all of which can counteract inflammatory and oxidative damages. There is considerable experimental evidence suggesting that NRF2 signaling plays a protective role in renal injuries that are caused by various pathologic conditions. In addition, impaired NRF2 activity and consequent target gene repression have been observed in CKD animals. Therefore, a pharmacological intervention activating NRF2 signaling can be beneficial in protecting against kidney dysfunction in CKD. This review article provides an overview of the role of NRF2 in experimental CKD models and describes current findings on the renoprotective effects of naturally occurring NRF2 activators, including sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin, and cinnamic aldehyde. These experimental results, coupled with recent clinical experiences with a synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl, have brought a light of hope for ameliorating CKD progression by preventing oxidative stress and maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.Molecules 08/2014; 19(8):12727-12759. DOI:10.3390/molecules190812727 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Under basal conditions, the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is bound to the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) protein and targeted for proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm. In response to cellular injury or chemical treatment, NRF2 dissociates from KEAP1 and activates the transcription of protective genes and defends against injury. LH601A is a first-in-class direct inhibitor of the KEAP1-NRF2 protein-protein interaction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LH601A activates NRF2 signaling in human kidney cells. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were treated with LH601A or the indirect NRF2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN) for 6 or 16 h. SFN and LH601A upregulated NRF2 target genes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (two- to sevenfold), thioredoxin 1 (TRX1) (twofold) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) mRNAs (twofold). Both compounds also elevated HO-1 and TRX1 protein expression. Since NRF2 activation can protect tissues from injury, LH601A, a direct inhibitor of the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction may be used to defend against kidney injury and/or diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbt.21693 · 1.60 Impact Factor