Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates ischemic AKI and increases expression of protective genes Nrf2, PPARγ, and HO-1.
ABSTRACT Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers expression of adaptive (protective) and maladaptive genes. Agents that increase expression of protective genes should provide a therapeutic benefit. We now report that bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates ischemic murine AKI as assessed by both renal function and pathology. BARD may exert its beneficial effect by increasing expression of genes previously shown to protect against ischemic AKI, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Although we found that BARD alone or ischemia-reperfusion alone increased expression of these genes, the greatest increase occurred after the combination of both ischemia-reperfusion and BARD. BARD had a different mode of action than other agents that regulate PPARγ and Nrf2. Thus we report that BARD regulates PPARγ, not by acting as a ligand but by increasing the amount of PPARγ mRNA and protein. This should increase ligand-independent effects of PPARγ. Similarly, BARD increased Nrf2 mRNA; this increased Nrf2 protein by mechanisms in addition to the prolongation of Nrf2 protein half-life previously reported. Finally, we localized expression of these protective genes after ischemia and BARD treatment. Using double-immunofluorescence staining for CD31 and Nrf2 or PPARγ, we found increased Nrf2 and PPARγ on glomerular endothelia in the cortex; Nrf2 was also present on cortical peritubular capillaries. In contrast, HO-1 was localized to different cells, i.e., tubules and interstitial leukocytes. Although Nrf2-dependent increases in HO-1 have been described, our data suggest that BARD's effects on tubular and leukocyte HO-1 during ischemic AKI may be Nrf2 independent. We also found that BARD ameliorated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
- SourceAvailable from: Marijn M Speeckaert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As ageing is a complex phenomenon characterized by intraindividual and interindividual diversities in the maintenance of the homeostatic condition of cells and tissues, changes in renal function are not uniform and depend on associated diseases and environmental factors. Multiple studies have investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of age-related decline in kidney function. Evolutionary, molecular, cellular and systemic theories have been postulated to explain the primarily disease independent age-related changes and adaptive responses. As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes, PPAR activation might have an effect on the prevention of cell senescence. In this review, we will focus on the experimental and clinical evidence of PPAR agonists in a battle against the ageing kidney.Ageing Research Reviews 03/2014; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2014.01.006 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New multifunctional drugs that target multiple disease-relevant networks offer a novel approach to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. New synthetic oleanane triterpenoids (SO), such as CDDO (2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid) and its derivatives, are multifunctional compounds originally developed for the prevention and treatment of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the protein binding partners and mechanisms of action of these SO are not yet fully understood. Here we characterize the putative target profile of one SO, CDDO-Imidazolide (CDDO-Im), by combining affinity purification with mass spectroscopic proteomic analysis to identify 577 candidate binding proteins in whole cells. This SO pharmaco-interactome consists of a diverse but interconnected set of signaling networks; bioinformatic analysis of the protein interactome identified canonical signaling pathways targeted by the SO, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), estrogen receptor (ER), insulin receptor (IR), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Pull-down studies then further validated a subset of the putative targets. In addition, we now show for the first time that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a direct target of CDDO-Im. We also show that CDDO-Im blocks insulin-induced activation of this pathway by binding to mTOR and inhibiting its kinase activity. Our basic studies confirm that the SO, CDDO-Im, acts on a protein network to elicit its pharmacological activity.PLoS ONE 07/2011; 6(7):e22862. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022862 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an emerging concept in clinical nephrology that acute kidney injury (AKI) can initiate chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, potential mechanisms by which this may occur remain elusive. Hence, this study tested the hypotheses that 1) AKI triggers progressive activation of selected proinflammatory genes, 2) there is a relative failure of compensatory anti-inflammatory gene expression, 3) proinflammatory lipid accumulation occurs, 4) these changes correspond with "gene-activating" histone acetylation, and 5) in concert, progressive renal disease results. CD-1 mice were subjected to 30 min of unilateral renal ischemia. Assessments were made 1 day, 1 wk, or 3 wk later. Results were contrasted to those observed in uninjured contralateral kidneys or in kidneys from normal mice. Progressive renal injury occurred throughout the 3-wk postischemic period, as denoted by stepwise increases in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin gene induction and ongoing histologic damage. By 3 wk postischemia, progressive renal disease was observed (massive tubular dropout; 2/3rds reduction in renal weight). These changes corresponded with progressive increases in proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression (MCP-1, TNF-α, TGF-β1), a relative failure of anti-inflammatory enzyme/cytokine (heme oxygenase-1; IL-10) upregulation, and progressive renal lipid (cholesterol/triglyceride) loading. Stepwise increases in collagen III mRNA and collagen deposition (Sirius red staining) indicated a progressive profibrotic response. Postischemic dexamethasone treatment significantly preserved renal mass, indicating functional significance of the observed proinflammatory state. Progressive gene-activating H3 acetylation was observed by ELISA, rising from 5% at baseline to 75% at 3 wk. This was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay of target genes. In sum, these results provide experimental support for the clinical concept that AKI can trigger CKD, this is partially mediated by progressive postischemic inflammation, ongoing lipid accumulation results (potentially evoking "lipotoxicity"), and increasing histone acetylation at proinflammatory/profibrotic genes may contribute to this self-sustaining injury-promoting state.AJP Renal Physiology 09/2011; 301(6):F1334-45. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00431.2011 · 4.42 Impact Factor