Implementation of cocooning against pertussis in a high-risk population.
ABSTRACT In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of all caregivers of infants aged <1 year ("cocooning") to prevent pertussis-related complications and deaths. We implemented cocooning in a predominantly Hispanic, medically underserved, uninsured population at a Houston hospital. Phase 1 (January 2008-January 2010) provided maternal postpartum Tdap vaccine; Phase 2 (June 2009-January 2010) also vaccinated infant contacts on-site.
Pertussis education was provided to health care personnel and mothers. Standing orders for maternal postpartum Tdap vaccination were initiated. Mothers were interviewed to ascertain the number of additional infant contacts eligible to receive Tdap vaccine. Consenting eligible contacts received Tdap vaccine as soon as possible after delivery.
From 7 January 2008 through 31 January 2010, 8334 (75%) of 11,174 postpartum women received Tdap vaccine. During Phase 2, 2969 (86%) of 3455 postpartum women were vaccinated; another 197 (6%) had previously received Tdap vaccine. Mothers were Hispanic (91.4%), black (5.4%), white (0.8%), Asian (1.4%) and other (1.0%). A median of 3 (range, 1-11) other Tdap-eligible contacts per infant were identified, and a median of 2 (range, 0-10) contacts per infant received Tdap vaccine. Of 1860 contacts vaccinated, 1813 (98%) anticipated daily infant contact. A total of 1697 (91%) received Tdap vaccine before infant hospital discharge, and 144 (8%) received Tdap vaccine within 7 days after hospital discharge. Barriers to full cocooning included the need for extended vaccination hours, visiting restrictions because of pandemic H1N1 influenza, and inaccurate recall of vaccination history.
Although practical and logistical barriers exist, Tdap cocooning was well accepted by and successfully implemented in a high-risk population by using standing orders and providing vaccinations on-site.
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ABSTRACT: 'Cocooning' aims to protect susceptible infants from pertussis via caregiver vaccination. Control trials evaluating educational interventions to promote cocooning are lacking. We evaluated the role of message-framing vs. standard health information in promoting pertussis vaccination. We recruited postpartum women from a maternity hospital in Sydney, Australia (November 2010-July 2012). Participants self-completed a pertussis knowledge and attitudes questionnaire. We then assigned pertussis-susceptible (no pertussis vaccine ≤10 years) participants to receive a gain-framed, loss-framed pamphlet or control (Government Pertussis factsheet) using weekly sequential block allocation. Next, participants were offered a pertussis vaccine (dTpa) and completed a post-questionnaire on discharge. A baseline questionnaire was completed for 96.4% (1433/1486) of postpartum women approached. Missing data was excluded (n=29). Next, participants (1404) were screened for vaccine status: 324 (23%) reported prior pertussis booster vaccine receipt, leaving 1080 participants requiring vaccination. Among susceptible mothers, 70% (754/1080) were vaccinated post-intervention. Rates were similar between 'gain', 'loss' or 'control' pamphlets (69.1% vs. 71.8% vs. 68.8%; p=0.62). Intention to be vaccinated (OR 2.46, p<0.001; 95% CI: 1.69-3.58), perceived vaccine benefits (OR: 1.61, p<0.001; 95% CI: 1.25-2.15) and having received a vaccine recommendation (OR 1.68; p=0.025; 95% CI: 1.07-2.65) were independent predictors of vaccine uptake. At discharge, overall pertussis vaccine coverage had increased from 23% to 77% among women screened (1078/1404). A cocooning strategy for pertussis vaccination can be highly effective when partially implemented within maternity hospitals, with information accompanied by a funded vaccine. Mothers were highly receptive to vaccination in the postnatal ward: facts about pertussis were as effective as message-framing in promoting a high uptake of 70%. Perceived vaccine benefits, intentions and vaccine recommendation were important predictors of uptake. Our intervention trial increased the existing pertussis vaccine coverage of 23-77%. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Vaccine 11/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.074 · 3.49 Impact Factor
Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 60(3). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu821 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pertussis is currently an emerging public health concern in some countries with high vaccination coverage. It is expected that maternal pertussis immunization could provide newborn protection. We compared pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) levels in women during pregnancy (pre- and post-vaccination) with respect to levels in the newborn at delivery in women vaccinated during pregnancy. We also estimated anti-PT titers at primary infant vaccination. Observational study of pregnant women vaccinated with Tdap (≥20 weeks gestation) and their newborns between May 2012 and August 2013. Anti-PT levels were determined by ELISA in maternal (pre- and post-vaccination) and newborn blood. Pre-vaccination, post-vaccination maternal and newborn samples were available in 132 subjects. Mean maternal age was 34.2 (SD 4.3) years. Median weeks of gestation at vaccination were 27.2 (Q1-Q3 21.7-30.8). Anti-PT (≥10IU/ml) levels were found in 37.1% of maternal pre-vaccination samples (geometric mean titer (GMT) 7.9IU/ml (95% CI 6.8-9.2)), 90.2% of post-vaccination samples (GMT 31.1IU/ml (95% CI 26.6-36.3)) and 94.7% of newborns (GMT 37.8IU/ml (95% CI 32.3-44.1)). The Lin concordance index between post-vaccination maternal and newborn samples was 0.8 (95% CI 0.8-0.9). Transplacental transfer ratio was 146.6%. At two months of age, 66% of newborns had estimated anti-PT levels ≥10IU/ml. There was a high correlation between anti-PT levels in mothers and newborns, with higher levels in newborns, which should be sufficient to provide protection against pertussis during the first months of life. Vaccination of pregnant women seems to be an immunogenic strategy to protect newborns until primary infant immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Vaccine 01/2015; 33(8). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.062 · 3.49 Impact Factor