Effects of baicalein on Sendai virus in vivo are linked to serum baicalin and its inhibition of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase.
ABSTRACT Parainfluenza viruses are significant respiratory-tract pathogens that are notorious for infecting children. However, there are no clinical drugs to control the infection caused by these viruses. Sendai virus (SeV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and causes fatal pneumonia in mice, its natural host. Baicalein is a flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, which is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for hundreds of years and has demonstrated a variety of biological activities. Our findings reveal that oral administration of baicalein to mice infected with Sendai virus results in a significant reduction in virus titers in the lungs and protection from death. The in vivo inhibitory effects of baicalein on Sendai virus are determined by baicalin in the serum. The mean IC(50) of baicalin was 0.71 μg/ml in an HA inhibition assay and 3.22 μg/ml in an NA inhibition assay. The mean IC(50) of baicalin in a CPE assay was measured to be 0.70 μg/ml, and significant inhibition was observed in a plaque assay at a concentration of 1.6 μg/ml baicalin in overlay medium, which suggests that baicalein is a potential anti-parainfluenzaviral agent in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: Eun-Ha Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Herbal medicine is used to treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, headaches, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and viral infections such as influenza. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of KIOM-C for the treatment of influenza A virus infection. Our results show that oral administration of KIOM-C conferred a survival benefit to mice infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus, and resulted in a 10- to 100-fold attenuation of viral replication in ferrets in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, oral administration of KIOM-C increased the production of antiviral cytokines, including IFN-γ and TNF-α, and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokines (KC, MCP-1) in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of A(H1N1)pdm-infected mice. These results indicate that KIOM-C can promote clearance of influenza virus in the respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets by modulating cytokine production in hosts. Taken together, our results suggest that KIOM-C is a potential therapeutic compound mixture for the treatment of influenza virus infection in humans.Antiviral research 04/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to study the effective mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction (MJWQH), against H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice, we chose a holistic approach. A reverse-phase liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed to determine metabolomic biomarkers in mouse serum for the MJWQH effects. Thirteen biomarkers of H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice serum were identified, which comprised L-valine, lauroylcarnitine, palmitoyl-L-carnitine, L-ornithine, uric acid, taurine, O-succinyl-L-homoserine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, PGF2α, 20-ethyl-PGE2, arachidonic acid, and glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine. Among them, metabolites of amino acids, fatty acids and arachidonic acid had the most relevant changes in mice with H1N1-induced pneumonia. MJWQH effectively improved weight loss, lung index, biomarkers and inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 and phospholipase A2 in the infected mice. Importantly, MJWQH reversed the elevated biomarkers to the control levels from the infection, which provided a systematic view and a theoretical basis for its prevention or treatment. The results suggest that the protective effect of MJWQH against H1N1-induced pneumonia is possibly through regulation of pathways for amino acid, fatty acid and arachidonic acid metabolism. They also suggest that the LC-MS-based metabolomic strategy is a powerful tool for elucidation of the mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Biomedical Chromatography 10/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study rated antiviral activity of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis) extracts against influenza A virus subtypes, for example, pandemic 2009 H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroform extracts inhibited in vitro neuraminidase (NA) enzymatic activity and viral replication more than methanol (MeOH) extract. EtOAc extract demonstrated NA inhibition IC50 values ranging from 73.16 to 487.40 μg/mL and plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 23.7 to 27.4 μg/mL. Chloroform extract showed antiviral activities with plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 14.16 to 41.49 μg/mL Time-of-addition assay indicated that EtOAc and chloroform extracts also significantly inhibited virus yields after infection. HPLC analysis demonstrated that baicalin was dominant in the MeOH extract; baicalein and chrysin were rich in the EtOAc and chloroform extracts. Molecular simulation revealed baicalein hydrogen bonding with Glu277 as well as hydrophobic and Van der Waals interactions with Ile222, Arg224, Ser246, and Tyr347 in NA1 active sites of NA1. Baicalein inhibited in vitro replication of influenza A viruses pandemic 2009 H1N1 (IC50 = 0.018 μM) and seasonal 2007 H1N1 using plaque reduction assays. A combination of low-dose baicalein with other anti-influenza agents could be applicable for development of alternative remedies treating influenza A virus infection.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:750803. · 1.72 Impact Factor