Oxaliplatin as a radiosensitizing agent in rectal cancer
ABSTRACT The efficacy of oxaliplatin monotherapy against several solid tumors and its relative lack of nephrotoxicity and myelosupression, coupled with results of the Multicenter International Study of Oxaliplatin/5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer trial, led to a great deal of interest for the implementation of this chemotherapeutic agent in the preoperative setting for the management of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Despite limited in-vitro and in-vivo data with regard to the radiosensitizing properties of oxaliplatin in rectal cancer, it rapidly entered phase I-III clinical trials. This study reviews the results of these trials and the current status of oxaliplatin as a radiosensitizing agent in the neoadjuvant management of rectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Preoperative radiotherapy is recommended for selected patients with rectal cancer. We evaluated the addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy and the use of postoperative chemotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer. We randomly assigned patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 resectable rectal cancer to receive preoperative radiotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, preoperative radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy, or preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy. Radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy delivered over a period of 5 weeks. One course of chemotherapy consisted of 350 mg of fluorouracil per square meter of body-surface area per day and 20 mg of leucovorin per square meter per day, both given for 5 days. Two courses were combined with preoperative radiotherapy in the group receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and the group receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy; four courses were planned postoperatively in the group receiving preoperative radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy and the group receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy. The primary end point was overall survival. We enrolled 1011 patients in the trial. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the groups that received chemotherapy preoperatively (P=0.84) and those that received it postoperatively (P=0.12). The combined 5-year overall survival rate for all four groups was 65.2%. The 5-year cumulative incidence rates for local recurrences were 8.7%, 9.6%, and 7.6% in the groups that received chemotherapy preoperatively, postoperatively, or both, respectively, and 17.1% in the group that did not receive chemotherapy (P=0.002). The rate of adherence to preoperative chemotherapy was 82.0%, and to postoperative chemotherapy was 42.9%. In patients with rectal cancer who receive preoperative radiotherapy, adding fluorouracil-based chemotherapy preoperatively or postoperatively has no significant effect on survival. Chemotherapy, regardless of whether it is administered before or after surgery, confers a significant benefit with respect to local control. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00002523 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).New England Journal of Medicine 10/2006; 355(11):1114-23. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa060829 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly improved in patients who had undergone resection with curative intent for stage II or III colon cancer who received bolus plus continuous-infusion fluorouracil plus leucovorin (LV5FU2) with the addition of oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4). Final results of the study, including 6-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year updated DFS, are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 2,246 patients were randomly assigned to receive LV5FU2 or FOLFOX4 for 6 months. The primary end point was DFS. Secondary end points were OS and safety. Results Five-year DFS rates were 73.3% and 67.4% in the FOLFOX4 and LV5FU2 groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.93; P = .003). Six-year OS rates were 78.5% and 76.0% in the FOLFOX4 and LV5FU2 groups, respectively (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.00; P = .046); corresponding 6-year OS rates for patients with stage III disease were 72.9% and 68.7%, respectively (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .023). No difference in OS was seen in the stage II population. The incidence of second noncolorectal cancers was 5.5% and 6.1% in the FOLFOX4 and LV5FU2 groups, respectively. Among patients receiving oxaliplatin, the frequency of grade 3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 1.3% 12 months after treatment and 0.7% at 48 months. CONCLUSION Adding oxaliplatin to LV5FU2 significantly improved 5-year DFS and 6-year OS in the adjuvant treatment of stage II or III colon cancer and should be considered after surgery for patients with stage III disease.Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2009; 27(19):3109-16. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2008.20.6771 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The standard adjuvant treatment of colon cancer is fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FL). Oxaliplatin improves the efficacy of this combination in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with FL plus oxaliplatin in the postoperative adjuvant setting. We randomly assigned 2246 patients who had undergone curative resection for stage II or III colon cancer to receive FL alone or with oxaliplatin for six months. The primary end point was disease-free survival. A total of 1123 patients were randomly assigned to each group. After a median follow-up of 37.9 months, 237 patients in the group given FL plus oxaliplatin had had a cancer-related event, as compared with 293 patients in the FL group (21.1 percent vs. 26.1 percent; hazard ratio for recurrence, 0.77; P=0.002). The rate of disease-free survival at three years was 78.2 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 75.6 to 80.7) in the group given FL plus oxaliplatin and 72.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 70.2 to 75.7) in the FL group (P=0.002 by the stratified log-rank test). In the group given FL plus oxaliplatin, the incidence of febrile neutropenia was 1.8 percent, the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects was low, and the incidence of grade 3 sensory neuropathy was 12.4 percent during treatment, decreasing to 1.1 percent at one year of follow-up. Six patients in each group died during treatment (death rate, 0.5 percent). Adding oxaliplatin to a regimen of fluorouracil and leucovorin improves the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2004; 350(23):2343-51. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa032709 · 55.87 Impact Factor