Risk factors for gout and prevention: A systematic review of the literature

Medicine Service and Center for Surgical Medical Acute care Research and Transitions (C-SMART), Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
Current opinion in rheumatology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 03/2011; 23(2):192-202. DOI: 10.1097/BOR.0b013e3283438e13
Source: PubMed


Our objective was to perform a systematic review of risk factors and prevention of gout. We searched Medline for fully published reports in English using keywords including but not limited to 'gout', 'epidemiology', 'primary prevention', 'secondary prevention', 'risk factors'. Data from relevant articles meeting inclusion criteria were extracted using standardized forms.
Of the 751 titles and abstracts, 53 studies met the criteria and were included in the review. Several risk factors were studied. Alcohol consumption increased the risk of incident gout, especially beer and hard liquor. Several dietary factors increased the risk of incident gout, including meat intake, seafood intake, sugar sweetened soft drinks, and consumption of foods high in fructose. Diary intake, folate intake, and coffee consumption were each associated with a lower risk of incident gout and in some cases a lower rate of gout flares. Thiazide and loop diuretics were associated with higher risk of incident gout and higher rate of gout flares. Hypertension, renal insufficiency, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, obesity, and early menopause were each associated with a higher risk of incident gout and/or gout flares.
Several dietary risk factors for incident gout and gout flares are modifiable. Prevention and optimal management of comorbidities are likely to decreased risk of gout. Research in preventive strategies for the treatment of gout is needed.

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Available from: Jasvinder A Singh, Sep 20, 2015
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    • "About 10% of people with hyperuricemia develop gout and 90% of patients with gout are hyperuricaemic [1]. Risk factors include family history, excessive consumption of alcohol, use of diuretics, kidney disease [1] [2] [6] [9], dietary factors such as elevated consumption of seafood, meat, and vegetables rich in purines [1] [2] [4] [6] [9], elevated body mass index (BMI) [1] [4] [6] [9], age, and gender [1]. Initial clinical presentation is commonly an acute inflammatory monoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint, known as podagra [1] [2] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To profile a sample of gouty patients treated with allopurinol, benzbromarone, or a combination of these two drugs and to describe the impact of this therapy in reducing uric acid levels. Methods. An observational, transversal study was performed. We evaluated 48 patients diagnosed with gout who were seen at the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2009 and November 2010. Clinical data, creatinine serum levels, and basal and posttreatment levels of serum urates, transaminases, and bilirubins were recorded. Uric acid levels were measured in a 24-hour urine sample. Patients were divided into three groups: patients given only allopurinol (A), only benzbromarone (B), and both in combined therapy (A + B). Results. The average age of these patients was 56.6 ± 11.4 years, varying from 35 to 81 years. The entire patient group experienced a significant drop in serum urate levels, from 8.5 ± 1.8 mg/dL (0.472 ± 0.1 mmol/L) to 6.7 ± 2.1 mg/dL (0.372 ± 0.116 mmol/L) (P < 0.001), regardless of the prescribed medication. The number of patients taking both drugs whose serum uric acid values fell within normal range (men <7 mg/dL (0.38 mmol/L) and women <6 mg/dL (0.33 mmol/L)) was 85.7% (6/7) while this value for the group taking benzbromarone alone was 75% (3/4) and for the group taking allopurinol alone this number was 51.8% (14/27). Conclusions. The therapeutic combination of benzbromarone and allopurinol significantly decreased serum urate levels in patients with gout when compared to individual use of each of these agents. This finding is especially important in treating patients who cannot control hyperuricemia with monotherapy. Benzbromarone alone or in combination with allopurinol has an important clinical role in controlling hyperuricemia in patients with gout.
    International Journal of Rheumatology 02/2014; 2014:263720. DOI:10.1155/2014/263720
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    • "Gout patients frequently have a number of comorbidities, including obesity, hypertension, high serum lipid and cholesterol levels, kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease [2,7,19-21]. Due to the rising incidence and prevalence of gout, greater scrutiny has been directed towards the impact of gout on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) [22,23], healthcare resource utilization, and work productivity, a task complicated by the presence of the other ailments. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The prevalence of gout is increasing, and most research on the associated burden has focused on serum urate (sUA) levels. The present study quantifies the impact of the presence of tophi and frequency of acute gout attacks on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Methods Patients with self-reported gout (n = 620; 338 in US and 282 across France, Germany, and UK) were contacted based on inclusion in the 2010 US and EU National Health and Wellness Surveys (Kantar Health) and the Lightspeed Research ailment panel. Respondents were categorized into mutually-exclusive groups based on number of gout flares experienced in the past 12 months (0/don’t recall, 1–2, 3, 4–5, 6+), current presence of tophi (none, 1+, or not sure), and sUA level awareness (yes, no). HRQOL (SF-12v2), healthcare provider visits in the last 6 months, and work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) were compared across groups. Results Most patients were males, mean age of 61 years, who reported experiencing at least one acute gout flare in the past 12 months, and 12.3% (n = 76) reported presence of tophi. Among the 27.7% (n = 172) of patients who were aware of their sUA levels, higher sUA was associated with more flares and tophi. Decreased HRQOL was associated with more frequent flares and presence of tophi. In multivariable models predicting outcomes based on presence of tophi and number of flares, both flares (≥4) and tophi (≥1) were associated with HRQOL decrements on physical and mental component summary scores and health utilities (all p < 0.05), after adjustment for age, gender, and time since diagnosis. Flares were also associated with greater activity impairment. Conclusions Impairments associated with gout flares and presence of tophi, across patients in the US and EU, underscore the importance of effective management of this potentially curable condition.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 09/2012; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-10-117 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    01/2011; DOI:10.4137/CMRT.S1626
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