The concepts of remission and recovery in schizophrenia
ABSTRACT Until recently outcome studies in schizophrenia lacked standardized measures, and outcome expectations were generally pessimistic. The Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) published operationalized criteria for symptomatic remission in 2005. These criteria have been extensively applied in research settings and have stimulated research into other components of outcome, particularly functional outcome and quality of life. Attention has also shifted beyond remission to the more difficult to attain and complex concept of recovery. The purpose of this review is to examine recent studies on these topics and to assess whether progress has been made towards a broader definition of remission and recovery.
Reported remission rates vary widely across studies (17-88%). Patients in remission do better than their nonremitted counterparts in several other outcome domains. Predictors of remission include early treatment response, and baseline symptom severity and subjective well being. Patients move in and out of remission over time. At present, there is no consensus on methods of measuring other outcome domains, particularly functional status and quality of life.
The RSWG remission criteria are easy to apply and define an achievable and desirable treatment goal. Measures of social and occupational functional outcome, quality of life and cognitive status need to be further developed and standardized before remission and recovery criteria can be more broadly defined.
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ABSTRACT: A discussion is presented of how to understand assembly illustrations in an assembly manual without basing it on any model of mechanical parts. The discussion is based on the following two basic prerequisites. The first is that at the present stage mechanical parts are assumed to be in the shape of or composed of cylinders. The second is to recognize the 3-D-structure of mechanical parts by using the assembly information obtained from auxiliary lines. A hierarchical approach is developed to understand an assembly illustration. Also presented is a `generated' structure understanding scheme. The scheme finds the generated structure in the succeeding illustration, by using preliminary information on the generated structure from the current assembly illustration. The preliminary information is obtained by understanding the current assembly illustrationComputer Vision, 1990. Proceedings, Third International Conference on; 01/1991
Conference Paper: Improving metal step coverage with Ar sputtering[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ar sputtering is applied to taper contact side-walls; experimental results show that metal step coverage is significantly improved as compared to conventional wet+dry contact etching without reflow. The sputtering improves the metal step coverage by rounding off the sharp corners on contact side-walls without contact CD loss nor degrading device performance. This approach is extremely useful for shallow junction formation and titanium or tungsten silicide processes which can not tolerate high temperature reflow. The depth limitation for 0.8 μm contacts on metal step coverage improvement is found to be around 1.0 umVLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, 1991, Proceedings., Eighth International IEEE; 07/1991
Conference Paper: Reliability study of planarized aluminum metallization[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This work investigates the reliability issues associated with an aluminum process, called the Al-plug process, that results in the complete filling of submicron contacts and vias. It has been demonstrated that the Al-plug process is a viable means of filling high aspect ratio vias and contacts for submicron geometries and can be used without degrading device reliability. It also has been experimentally determined that the film's microstructural parameters such as surface roughness, grain size, Si nodules and hillock formation are improved over the conventionally deposited Al-Si-Cu film. Both electromigration and stress-induced migration data also indicate that the Al-plug metal film is highly reliable. The planarity of the Al-Si-Cu lines in vias and over steps is excellent compared to that of a standard metal processVLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, 1991, Proceedings., Eighth International IEEE; 07/1991