Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

Department of Surgery and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Gut (Impact Factor: 14.66). 05/2011; 60(6):814-9. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2010.218305
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening.
Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected.
33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease.
This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC.

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Available from: Tetsuro Yamazato, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Therefore, there is a clear demand for a more economical, noninvasive and efficient detection method. Sonoda et al. (2011) used one Labrador retriever that had previously been trained for water rescue, and was retrained as a cancer detection dog using a reward based approach (7). Using both breath and watery stool samples of colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls, they found 91% sensitivity and 99% specificity for breath samples, and 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity for watery stool samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory cancer detection shows promise as an affordable, precise, and noninvasive way to screen for cancer. This review focuses on two methods of olfactory cancer detection: first, the ability of canines to differentiate between cancerous and healthy individuals through the use of biological samples and second, electronic nose technology that uses chemical sensors to detect known biomarkers in exhaled breath. This review summarizes and critiques past research and outlines future directions to improve understanding of both canine olfaction and electronic nose technology.
    Cancer Investigation 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/07357907.2015.1047510 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    • "2 Giant Schnauzer Double blind Blood and tissue In the study the authors calculated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for tissue sample tests, and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98% for blood sample tests Greater number of samples Inclusion of other inflammatory processes besides cancer and other confounders (i.e., smoking) in the control group [20] Colorectal cancer 1 Labrador Retriever Double blind Breath and watery stool samples The authors calculated a sensitivity for canine scent detection of 91% and 97% for breath tests and watery stool tests, respectively; a specificity of 99% for, both, breathe tests and watery stool tests Greater number of samples Inclusion of more inflammatory processes and a greater number of confounders in the control group Inclusion of a greater number of dogs in the study [21] Prostate cancer 1 Belgian Malinois Shepherd Double blind Urine The calculated sensitivity and specificity was 91% Greater number of samples Inclusion of a greater number of dogs in the study [22] "
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    ABSTRACT: In order to find better tools in the diagnosis of cancer in an earlier and more precise manner, researchers have explored the use of volatile organic compound (VOCs) as a way to detect this disease. Interestingly, the canine olfactory apparatus was observed to detect cancer in two anecdotal reports. After the description of these events, researchers began to study this phenomenon in a structured way in order to assess the ability of canines in detecting cancer-related VOCs. Due to the fact that some of these studies have shown that the canine olfactory apparatus is highly proficient in the detection of cancer-related VOCs, in this article we assess the possibility of constructing a bioelectronic-nose, based on canine olfactory receptors (ORs), for the purpose of diagnosing cancer in a more sensitive, specific, and cost effective manner than what is available nowadays. Furthermore, in order to prove the feasibility and the need of the proposed apparatus, we searched for the following type of articles: all of the studies that have examined, to our knowledge, the ability of dogs in detecting cancer; articles that assess the dog olfactory receptor (OR) gene repertoire, since a central part of the proposed bioelectronic nose is being able to recognize the odorant that emanates from the cancerous lesion, and for that purpose is necessary to express the canine ORs in heterologous cells; examples of articles that depict different devices that have been built for the purpose of detecting cancer-related VOCs, so as to assess if the construction of the proposed apparatus is needed; and articles that describe examples of already constructed bioelectronic noses, in order to demonstrate the existence of a technical precedent and thus the plausibility of the proposed device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Medical Hypotheses 04/2015; 85(2). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.04.024 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Non-invasive testing of cancers, using Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and gases that emanate from urine, breath, stool and blood, has received growing interest and has been an expanding area of research in recent years. This work initially started from the use of canines to detect cancers, which showed a marked ability to discriminate cancer patients from healthy individuals [6], [7], [8]. However, more recently a number of groups have indicated that it is possible to use gas phase analytical instruments, specifically gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), selective-ion flow mass spectrometer (SIFT) and the electronic nose (e-nose), to detect lung, breast, bladder and prostate cancers [9], [10], [11], [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related death in Europe and the USA. There is no universally accepted effective non-invasive screening test for CRC. Guaiac based faecal occult blood (gFOB) testing has largely been superseded by Faecal Immunochemical testing (FIT), but sensitivity still remains poor. The uptake of population based FOBt testing in the UK is also low at around 50%. The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) signature(s) for many cancer subtypes is receiving increasing interest using a variety of gas phase analytical instruments. One such example is FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer). FAIMS is able to identify Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) patients by analysing shifts in VOCs patterns in both urine and faeces. This study extends this concept to determine whether CRC patients can be identified through non-invasive analysis of urine, using FAIMS. 133 patients were recruited; 83 CRC patients and 50 healthy controls. Urine was collected at the time of CRC diagnosis and headspace analysis undertaken using a FAIMS instrument (Owlstone, Lonestar, UK). Data was processed using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) after feature extraction from the raw data. FAIMS analyses demonstrated that the VOC profiles of CRC patients were tightly clustered and could be distinguished from healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC detection with FAIMS were 88% and 60% respectively. This study suggests that VOC signatures emanating from urine can be detected in patients with CRC using ion mobility spectroscopy technology (FAIMS) with potential as a novel screening tool.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108750. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108750 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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