Sodium butyrate induces the production of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin E₂ in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells.
ABSTRACT Sodium butyrate (butyric acid; BA) is a major metabolic by-product of the anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. We examined the effects of BA and/or indomethacin on cell proliferation, the expression of cyclooxygenases (COXs), prostaglandin (PG) receptors (EP1-4), extracellular matrix proteins, such as type I collagen and osteopontin, and PGE(2) production, using ROS17/2.8 cells as osteoblasts.
The rat clonal cell line ROS 17/2.8 was cultured with 0, 10(-5), 10(-4), and 10(-3)M BA in the presence or absence of 0.5 μM indomethacin, for up to 7 days. The expression of COX-1, COX-2, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, type I collagen, and osteopontin was examined at the mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The amount of PGE(2) in the culture medium was measured by ELISA.
Proliferation of ROS 17/2.8 cells was not affected by the addition of BA. However, PGE(2) production and the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 increased with the addition of BA. In contrast, indomethacin, an inhibitor of COX, blocked the stimulatory effect of BA. Furthermore, EP2 expression increased with BA treatment, whereas EP1 expression was not affected and the expression of EP3 and EP4 was not detected. The addition of BA also increased the expression of type I collagen and osteopontin. Indomethacin blocked about 50% of the stimulatory effect of BA on type I collagen, whereas it did not block the effect on osteopontin.
These results suggest that BA induces PGE(2) production by increasing the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in osteoblasts, and that an autocrine action of the produced PGE(2), via EP1 or BA-induced EP2, is related to an increase in type I collagen expression by BA.
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ABSTRACT: The surgical management of intermittent exotropia, or X(T), remains a challenge. Not only are some quoted success rates relatively low (40-83%), but the outcome is notoriously unpredictable with a tendency to exotropic drift over time. In this retrospective study, 118 patients who underwent either bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession (BLR) or unilateral medial rectus muscle resection and lateral rectus muscle recession (R&R) surgery during a 4-year period were reviewed. Surgical outcome between the 2 groups in addition to factors that influence outcome within groups were analyzed. Success was defined as an X(T) < or = 10PD. Sixty-four subjects underwent BLR, and 54 subjects underwent R&R surgery. Mean preoperative distant X(T) size was 38.7 +/- 6.7 PD. Subjects who underwent R&R did significantly better at 1-year follow-up (success 74.2% vs. 42.2%) but showed significantly more exotropic drift over time (P = 0.01). Within both BLR and R&R groups, subjects with basic-type X(T) did worse than those with divergence-excess X(T) at 1-year follow-up. Consecutive esotropias, however, were more likely with R&R surgery and in those with divergence excess X(T). Preoperative strabismus control, distant X(T) size, and patient age at surgery did not significantly influence outcome. In many cases, selection of surgery type continues to depend on the surgeon's preference, which is in turn influenced by his/her past experiences. The debate about which surgical type is best for different X(T) types continues.Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 07/2006; 10(3):206-11. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Classic teaching suggests that surgery for intermittent exotropia should be based on distance/near differences. Divergence excess, according to tradition, should be treated with symmetric lateral rectus recessions; simulated divergence excess and basic deviations should be treated with a recess/resect procedure. This teaching, to our knowledge, has not been systematically tested. To evaluate the appropriateness of selective surgery based on distance/near differences and to determine if bilateral lateral rectus recessions affect the distance deviation more than the near deviation. Patients with basic type intermittent exotropia were randomized to 2 groups, those receiving either unilateral recess/resect procedures or symmetric lateral rectus recessions. Patients with simulated divergence excess intermittent exotropia received symmetric lateral rectus recessions. Outcome was observed 1 year after surgery. Of 19 patients with basic exotropia receiving lateral rectus recessions, 10 patients (52%) had a satisfactory outcome compared with 14 (82%) of the 17 patients who had recess/resect procedures (P<.05). Of the 68 patients with simulated divergence excess, 55 patients (80%) had a satisfactory outcome after bilateral/lateral rectus recessions. This result was significantly better than the outcome for patients with basic exotropia who underwent lateral rectus recessions (P<.05) [corrected]. The decrease in the distance/near difference after surgery was essentially identical for patients with basic exotropia who underwent lateral rectus recessions as for those who received recess/resect procedures (means, 2.4 prism diopters vs 2.1 prism diopters, respectively). Although this study did not evaluate increasing the amount of symmetric lateral rectus recessions for patients with basic exotropia, these data suggest that patients with basic type intermittent exotropia should be treated with recess/resect procedures. Data also suggest that patients with simulated divergence excess do well with lateral rectus recessions. Recess/resect procedures and symmetric surgery affect distance/near differences equally in patients with basic exotropia.Archives of Ophthalmology 03/1998; 116(3):324-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the results between recession of the lateral recti and monocular recess-resect procedure for the correction of the basic type of intermittent exotropia. 115 patients with intermittent exotropia were submitted to surgery. The patients were divided into 4 groups, according to the magnitude of preoperative deviation and the surgical procedure was subsequently performed. Well compensated orthophoria or exo-or esophoria were considered surgical success, with minimum of 1 year follow-up after the operation. Success was obtained in 69% of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti, and in 77% submitted to monocular recess-resect. In the groups with deviations between 12 PD and 25 PD, surgical success was observed in 74% of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti and in 78% of the patients submitted to monocular recess-resect. (p=0.564). In the group with deviations between 26 PD and 35 PD, surgical success was observed in 65% out of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti and in 75% of the patients submitted to monocular recess-resect. (p=0.266). Recession of lateral recti and monocular recess-resect were equally effective in correcting basic type intermittent exotropia according to its preoperative deviation in primary position.Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia 01/2007; 70(3):429-32. · 0.38 Impact Factor