Article

Effects of EpCAM overexpression on human breast cancer cell lines.

Laboratory for Experimental Oncology, Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
BMC Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.33). 01/2011; 11:45. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-45
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, EpCAM has attracted major interest as a target for antibody- and vaccine-based cancer immunotherapies. In breast cancer, the EpCAM antigen is overexpressed in 30-40% of all cases and this increased expression correlates with poor prognosis. The use of EpCAM-specific monoclonal antibodies is a promising treatment approach in these patients.
In order to explore molecular changes following EpCAM overexpression, we investigated changes of the transcriptome upon EpCAM gene expression in commercially available human breast cancer cells lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231. To assess cell proliferation, a tetrazolium salt based assay was performed. A TCF/LEF Reporter Kit was used to measure the transcriptional activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To evaluate the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, a subcellular fractionation assay was performed.
For the first time we could show that expression profiling data of EpCAM transfected cell lines Hs578TEpCAM and MDA-MB-231EpCAM indicate an association of EpCAM overexpression with the downregulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitors SFRP1 and TCF7L2. Confirmation of increased Wnt signaling was provided by a TCF/LEF reporter kit and by the finding of the nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin for MDA-MB-231 EpCAM but not Hs578T EpCAM cells. In Hs578T cells, an increase of proliferation and chemosensitivity to Docetaxel was associated with EpCAM overexpression.
These data show a cell type dependent modification of Wnt signaling components after EpCAM overexpression in breast cancer cell lines, which results in marginal functional changes. Further investigations on the interaction of EpCAM with SFRP1 and TCF7L2 and on additional factors, which may be causal for changes upon EpCAM overexpression, will help to characterize unique molecular properties of EpCAM-positive breast cancer cells.

1 Bookmark
 · 
371 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) results in release of its intracellular domain (Ep-ICD) which triggers oncogenic signalling. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in breast cancer remains to be determined. Herein, we examined the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD, and membranous extracellular domain of EpCAM (EpEx) in breast cancer patients, to determine its potential utility in predicting aggressive clinical course of the disease.
    BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):726. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resistance to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is the main reason for the failure of cancer treatment, and drug resistance is associated with an inability of tumor cells to undergo apoptosis in response to treatment. Alterations in the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) affect the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to anticancer treatment and the activity of intracellular signaling pathways. However, the role of EpCAM in the induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of EpCAM gene knockdown on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in MCF-7 cells and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of EpCAM promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell-cycle arrest. EpCAM knockdown enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, promoting apoptosis by downregulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulating the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and caspase3 via the ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that knockdown of EpCAM may have a tumor suppressor effect and suggest EpCAM as a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102590. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An elevated level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is implicated in several cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Numerous reports have demonstrated that TNF-α activates nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, resulting in the upregulation of several genes that regulate inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is also activated by TNF-α and plays a crucial role in redox-sensitive signaling pathways. The present study investigated whether NADPH oxidase mediates TNF-α-induced NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with recombinant TNF-α with or without pretreatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. TNF-α-induced ROS production was measured using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. TNF-α-induced NF-kappaB activation was also examined using immunoblot; NF-kappaB binding to its binding motif was determined using a Cignal reporter luciferase assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. TNF-α-induced upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1β and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 was investigated using real-time PCR and immunoblot. TNF-α-induced ROS production in cardiomyocytes was mediated by NADPH oxidase. Phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and p65, degradation of IkappaBα, binding of NF-kappaB to its binding motif, and upregulation of IL-1β and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-α were significantly attenuated by treatment with DPI and apocynin. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase plays a role in regulation of TNF-α-induced NF-kappaB activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and VCAM-1, in human cardiomyocytes.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry. 07/2014;

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
55 Downloads
Available from
Jun 10, 2014