Endometrial cancer associated with various forms of postmenopausal hormone therapy: a case control study.
ABSTRACT This study evaluates the effect of different modes of estradiol-progestagen therapy (EPT) regimens on the postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk in Finland. Women diagnosed with endometrial cancer in 1995-2007 at the age of 50-80 years were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry (N = 7,261). For each case, three age-matched controls were retrieved from the Finnish Population Register. The use of EPT since 1994 was ascertained from the national Medical Reimbursement Register. Odds ratios (ORs) for different EPT regimens were calculated with conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for parity and ages at the deliveries. For use of <5 years, the OR for sequential EPT was 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.86), for continuous EPT 0.45 (0.27-0.73), and for estradiol plus levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device system (LNG-IUS) 0.39 (0.17-0.88). A decreased risk persisted for the use of continuous EPT and estradiol plus LNG-IUS of up to 10 years. The use of long-cycle EPT showed a tendency toward an elevated risk both for exposure of <5 years (1.40; 0.82-2.38) and for estimated use of >5 years (1.63; 1.12-2.38). For an estimated exposure of >10 years, the risk for endometrial cancer was elevated for both users of long-cycle EPT (2.95; 2.40-3.62) and sequential EPT (1.38; 1.15-1.66). Norethisterone acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate as parts of EPT did not differ in their endometrial cancer risk. The use of tibolone showed no endometrial risk. The use of sequential and long-cycle EPT is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, whereas the use of continuous EPT or estradiol plus LNG-IUS shows a decreased risk.
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ABSTRACT: The daily administered dose of progestin in continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy is provided to counteract the proliferative effect of estrogen on the postmenopausal endometrium. However, there remains some uncertainty as to whether use of such a combined regimen, over the long term, is associated with an altered risk of endometrial cancer. We pooled data from four population-based case-control studies of endometrial cancer in western Washington State. Cases, ages 45-74, were diagnosed between 1985 and 2005. Using logistic regression with the adjustment for confounding factors, women who had exclusively used continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy (90 endometrial cancer cases, 227 controls) were compared with women who had never used any type of hormone therapy (774 cases, 1,116 controls). Associations with duration and recency of use were evaluated overall and within strata defined by body mass index. Long-term use of continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy (≥10 years) was associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.21-0.66). This association was most pronounced in women with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.68). Associations did not differ according to recency of use. These results suggest that long duration of use of continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer.Cancer Causes and Control 09/2011; 22(12):1639-46. · 3.20 Impact Factor