Implant surface morphology and primary stability: is there a connection?
ABSTRACT The aim was to review the influence of surface morphology on the primary stability of dental implants.
MEDLINE-PubMed databases were explored from 1991 up to and including April 2010 using different combinations of the following terms: "dental," "implant surface roughness," "immediate loading," "initial stability," "primary stability," and "osseointegration." Articles published only in English language were included and hand searching was also performed. Letters to the Editor and unpublished data were excluded.
Ten studies (three clinical and seven experimental) were included according to the search databases. In six studies (three experimental and three clinical), the implant stability was measured at least after 4 weeks after implant insertion; and primary implant stability was recorded in four experimental studies, using the insertion and removal torque tests and resonance frequency analysis using implant stability quotient values.
Rough-surfaced implants have significantly higher success rates compared with dental implants with smooth surfaces; however, the question "Is there a connection between implant surface roughness (microdesign) and primary stability?" remains unanswered.
Article: Inhibition of Rac and ROCK Signalling Influence Osteoblast Adhesion, Differentiation and Mineralization on Titanium Topographies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reducing the time required for initial integration of bone-contacting implants with host tissues would be of great clinical significance. Changes in osteoblast adhesion formation and reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in response to altered topography are known to be upstream of osteoblast differentiation, and these processes are regulated by the Rho GTPases. Rac and RhoA (through Rho Kinase (ROCK)). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we tested how inhibition of Rac and ROCK influenced osteoblast adhesion, differentiation and mineralization on PT (Pre-treated) and SLA (sandblasted large grit, acid etched) topographies. Inhibition of ROCK, but not Rac, significantly reduced adhesion number and size on PT, with adhesion size consistent with focal complexes. After 1 day, ROCK, but not Rac inhibition increased osteocalcin mRNA levels on SLA and PT, with levels further increasing at 7 days post seeding. ROCK inhibition also significantly increased bone sialoprotein expression at 7 days, but not BMP-2 levels. Rac inhibition significantly reduced BMP-2 mRNA levels. ROCK inhibition increased nuclear translocation of Runx2 independent of surface roughness. Mineralization of osteoblast cultures was greater on SLA than on PT, but was increased by ROCK inhibition and attenuated by Rac inhibition on both topographies. In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK signalling significantly increases osteoblast differentiation and biomineralization in a topographic dependent manner, and its pharmacological inhibition could represent a new therapeutic to speed bone formation around implanted metals and in regenerative medicine applications.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58898. · 4.09 Impact Factor