Restoring leptin signaling reduces hyperlipidemia and improves vascular stiffness induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia
ABSTRACT Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep can result from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder that is particularly prevalent in obesity. OSA is associated with high levels of circulating leptin, cardiovascular dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. Relationships between leptin and cardiovascular function in OSA and chronic IH are poorly understood. We exposed lean wild-type (WT) and obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice to IH for 4 wk, with and without leptin infusion, and measured cardiovascular indices including aortic vascular stiffness, endothelial function, cardiac myocyte morphology, and contractile properties. At baseline, ob/ob mice had decreased vascular compliance and endothelial function vs. WT mice. We found that 4 wk of IH decreased vascular compliance and endothelial relaxation responses to acetylcholine in both WT and leptin-deficient ob/ob animals. Recombinant leptin infusion in both strains restored IH-induced vascular abnormalities toward normoxic WT levels. Cardiac myocyte morphology and function were unaltered by IH. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased by leptin treatment in IH mice, as was hepatic stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that restoring normal leptin signaling can reduce vascular stiffness, increase endothelial relaxation, and correct dyslipidemia associated with IH.
- Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(18):2079; author reply 2081. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.50.5756 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men in the general population and the prevalence is much higher in specific patient groups. Intermittent hypoxia (IH, oxygen desaturation and re-oxygenation) cycle, a major pathophysiologic character of OSA, and the physiological responses this evokes are thought to be responsible for its association with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting from IH and as a key early event in atherosclerosis, was demonstrated repeatedly in patients with OSA and in animal models of IH, providing an important mechanistic link between the acute cyclical IH during sleep and the increased prevalence of chronic vascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: From this work, we conclude that IH from OSA may result in endothelial dysfunction, as a potential promoter of atherosclerosis, through nitric oxide unavailability, oxidative stress and inflammation, cell apoptosis, the crosstalk between endothelial cells and circulating inflammatory cells, microparticles, and damage repairing process. Though effective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may specifically improve endothelial function, more controlled larger interventional trials that will include multiple centers and randomized allocation of CPAP therapy are needed to see if such changes are reversible before cause and effect can be implied finally, while further studies on cellular and animal level are also needed to elucidate molecular biologic/pathologic pathways.Sleep And Breathing 04/2011; 16(2):283-94. DOI:10.1007/s11325-011-0519-8 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that leptin is involved in relevant processes in the cardiovascular system. Low serum leptin levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary artery, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that leptin is increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and provides prognostic information. We correlated leptin levels with clinical data and assessed its association with survival. Sixty-seven patients with PAH and 29 healthy controls were studied. Plasma leptin levels were nonlinearly associated with BMI. Leptin level <15 μg/l was associated with higher mortality in PAH patients, with an adjusted (age, gender, BMI, and smoking status) hazard ratio of 3.8 (95% CI: 1.3-11.2), P=0.016. Similarly, PAH patients with leptin/BMI ratio <0.5 μg * m(2)/kg * l had worse survival than those with a level >0.5 μg * m(2)/ kg * l (P=0.046 by log-rank test). Two-year mortality in PAH patients was 24%. A receiver operating characteristic curve using leptin/BMI ratio as the test variable and 2-year mortality as the state variable showed an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62-0.86). A leptin/BMI ratio cut-off of 0.6 had a high sensitivity (94%) and negative predictive value (96%) for predicting death of any cause at 2 years. In PAH, plasma leptin levels are directly associated with BMI. Lower leptin levels, when adjusted by BMI, are associated with an increased overall mortality and leptin/BMI ratio has high negative predictive value for mortality at 2 years.04/2012; 2(2):214-9. DOI:10.4103/2045-8932.97607