Sulforaphane-mediated reduction of aflatoxin B₁-N⁷-guanine in rat liver DNA: impacts of strain and sex.
ABSTRACT Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a DNA-binding toxin that contributes to the burden of liver cancer in tropical areas. AFB₁-DNA adducts are powerful biomarkers that discern individual and population risk from exposure to this carcinogen. The discovery of concordance between the metabolic pathways of the male Fischer rat and humans allowed data from rats to guide the development of chemoprevention strategies employed in clinical trials in high-risk regions. In this study, the variables of strain and sex are studied in the rat model, as a step toward understanding how ethnic differences and sex influence DNA adduct formation and the induction of enzymes by chemoprotective agents. Sulforaphane (SF), which induces phase II enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), was evaluated for its ability to induce GST activity and reduce the AFB₁-DNA adducts in livers of both sexes of two rat strains that differ in susceptibility to AFB₁ hepatocarcinogenesis. A dose-dependent relationship was found for SF for both induction of GST and reduction in of AFB₁-N⁷-guanine in both Fischer (sensitive to AFB₁) and Sprague-Dawley rats (relatively resistant). Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited the greatest increase in GST levels and the largest reduction in AFB₁-N⁷-guanine in liver DNA. Males and females of each strain were also compared to determine if the ability of SF to induce GST and reduce AFB₁-N⁷-guanine correlated with gender differences in sensitivity to AFB₁ carcinogenesis. No gender-specific responses to SF were observed. These results support the view that SF induction of liver GST activity may play a role in its chemoprotective activity.
Article: Glutathione S-transferase A. A novel kinetic mechanism in which the major reaction pathway depends on substrate concentration.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1974; 249(22):7140-7. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Protective interventions to prevent aflatoxin-induced carcinogenesis in developing countries.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive in economically developing countries; consequently, we need to design intervention strategies for prevention that are practicable for these high-risk populations. The adverse health consequences of aflatoxins in populations are quite varied, eliciting acute effects, such as rapid death, and chronic outcomes, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, a number of epidemiological studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Thus, the magnitude of the problem is disseminated across the entire spectrum of age, gender, and health status in the population. The aflatoxins multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which illustrates the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. Thus other aflatoxin interactions, which likely contribute to the disease burden, still remain to be identified. Therefore, many diverse and appropriate strategies for disease prevention are needed to decrease the incidence of aflatoxin carcinogenesis in developing countries.Annual Review of Public Health 02/2008; 29:187-203. · 5.45 Impact Factor