Interleukin-1 Targeting Drugs in Familial Mediterranean Fever: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature
ABSTRACT Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal-recessive autoinflammatory disorder common in Mediterranean populations. FMF is associated with mutations of the MEFV gene, which encodes pyrin. Functional studies suggest that pyrin is implicated in the maturation and secretion of IL-1. The IL-1 receptor antagonist or anti-IL1 monoclonal antibody may therefore represent a new approach to treat FMF. The aim of this report was to evaluate and discuss treatment of FMF with interleukin-1 targeting drugs.
Electronic mailing lists of French pediatric and adult rheumatologist associations were used to call for FMF patients treated with interleukin-1 antagonists. A search for published FMF patients treated with interleukin-1 targeting drugs was performed by screening PubMed.
Here, we report 7 cases of FMF patients treated with anakinra and/or canakinumab and discuss the clinical situations that may indicate the use of IL-1 blocking agents in FMF. The use of interleukin-1 targeting drugs was beneficial to all patients. The reasons for using interleukin-1 targeting drugs in FMF patients were as follows: (1) incomplete control of disease activity despite colchicine treatment; (2) high serum amyloid A levels despite colchicine treatment; (3) impossibility to use colchicine treatment because of severe side effects; (4) FMF in association with vasculitis.
Interleukin-1 targeting drugs may be good candidates when looking for an alternative or supplementary treatment to colchicine. These observations highlight the need for controlled trials to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of interleukin-1 antagonists in FMF patients.
SourceAvailable from: Luca Cantarini[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.Mediators of Inflammation 02/2015; 2015:1-21. DOI:10.1155/2015/194864 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an expanding role for interleukin (IL)-1 in diseases from gout to cancer. More than any other cytokine family, the IL-1 family is closely linked to innate inflammatory and immune responses. This linkage is because the cytoplasmic segment of all members of the IL-1 family of receptors contains a domain, which is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all toll-like receptors (TLRs). This domain, termed "toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain," signals as does the IL-1 receptors; therefore, inflammation due to the TLR and the IL-1 families is nearly the same. Fundamental responses such as the induction of cyclo-oxygenase type 2, increased surface expression of cellular adhesion molecules and increased gene expression of a broad number of inflammatory molecules characterizes IL-1 signal transduction as it does for TLR agonists. IL-1β is the most studied member of the IL-1 family because of its role in mediating autoinflammatory disease. However, a role for IL-1α in disease is being validated because of the availability of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human IL-1α. There are presently three approved therapies for blocking IL-1 activity. Anakinra is a recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist, which binds to the IL-1 receptor and prevents the binding of IL-1β as well as IL-1α. Rilonacept is a soluble decoy receptor that neutralizes primarily IL-1β but also IL-1α. Canakinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes only IL-1β. Thus, a causal or significant contributing role can be established for IL-1β and IL-1α in human disease.
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ABSTRACT: Despite their limited licensed indications, anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) agents are often used in clinical practice for an increasing number of auto-inflammatory diseases. We conducted a national cross-sectional observational study from January 2011 to January 2013 to record the off-label use of such agents in France. We aimed to estimate the off-label use of anti-IL-1 treatments in France, assess their efficacy in rare diseases, and increase the reporting of their possible side effects. Physicians answered a questionnaire that covered patient and disease data, anti-IL-1 agent use, efficacy and adverse events. The study involved adult or paediatric patient who had received an anti-IL-1 agent after January 2005 in France. In total, 189 patients from 38 centres were included. The main diseases were adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) (35), gout (28), systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (27), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) (21), familial Mediterranean fever (14) and mevalonate kinase deficiency (12). The main off-label used agent was anakinra, used at least once for 185 patients, with canakinumab used for 25. Anakinra was effective in most patients (90%), with higher complete clinical response rates for Schnitzler's syndrome, gout, CAPS and AOSD. Overall, 58% of patients showed at least one adverse event, mainly minor injection-site reactions. The main reported serious adverse event was severe infection. Injection-site reactions and liver toxicity were significantly more frequent in children than adults. The main non-cutaneous adverse event was liver toxicity, significantly associated with treatment duration. Weight gain was reported in about 10% of patients and was associated with treatment duration and CAPS. Canakinumab was rarely used and showed better cutaneous tolerance than anakinra but similar rates of non-cutaneous and severe adverse events. Anakinra was well tolerated and effective in most patients with various inflammatory diseases. The main adverse events were mild injection-site reactions, especially in children. The survey allowed for collecting limited information on the off-label use of canakinumab.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 02/2015; 10(1):19. DOI:10.1186/s13023-015-0228-7 · 3.96 Impact Factor