Acute and Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures in Athletes

University Foot and Ankle Institute, 1101 Sepulveda Boulevard, Manhattan Beach, CA, USA.
Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery (Impact Factor: 0.56). 01/2011; 28(1):117-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpm.2010.10.002
Source: PubMed


The Achilles tendon is the most injured tendon of athletes in the lower extremities and is the most common tendon to rupture spontaneously. Operative repair provides earlier return to sporting activities and lesser rate of rerupture. The general goal is to attempt anastomosis of the acute ruptured ends; however, delayed ruptures may require more extensive procedures. New surgical approaches, including percutaneous and mini-open techniques, are being introduced to potentially diminish perioperative complications. Advent of early protective range of motion and rehabilitation has shown a potential for earlier return to sporting activities for Achilles ruptures.

47 Reads
  • Source
    • "With the increase in the population of sports activities, the prevalence of tendon injury is on the rise. The Achilles tendon in particular is one of the most frequently affected area [1]. The Achilles tendon receives excessive strain from repeated strenuous activities such as running, jumping, and landing, which can cause structural changes and biomechanical weakening of the tendon, and eventually can lead to rupture [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of the posture of immobilization upon the tensile properties in injured Achilles tendon of rat for an initial period of immobilization. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study. Eighteen rats received a total tenotomy of the right Achilles tendon to mimic total rupture and were divided into three groups comprising of 6 rats each. Ankles of group A were immobilized at 60° of plantarflexion. Ankles of group B were immobilized at neutral position. Whereas, those of group C were immobilized at 60° of dorsiflexion. Other 18 rats received hemitenotomy to mimic partial rupture and were divided into three groups. The remaining 6 rats were kept free as control. After 14 days, we dissected the tendons and analyzed maximum force, stiffness, and energy uptake during pulling of the tendons until they ruptured. The tendons of 6 rats in each group and control were reserved for histology. Picrosirius staining was done for the analysis of collagen organization. In total tenotomy, tensile properties were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p<0.05). Group C showed relatively higher values than the groups A and B with respect to tensile properties (p>0.05). In partial tenotomy, tensile properties were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p<0.05). Group C showed significantly higher value than other intervention groups in terms of maximum force and energy uptake (p<0.05). The semiquantitative histologic grading scores were assigned for collagen organization. The scores for dorsiflexion posture were higher than the ones for plantarflexion. Dorsiflexion posture in partial ruptured Achilles tendon showed better functional recovery than other immobilized postures. In total ruptured case, the tensile properties showed increasing tendency in dorsiflexion posture.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2013; 37(1):1-9. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.1
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a meta-analysis, the clinical effectiveness of operative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR) compared with nonoperative treatment. We systematically searched six electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Clinical Ovid, BIOSIS and Cochrane registry of controlled clinical trials) to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which operative treatment was compared with nonoperative treatment for AATR from 1980 to 2011. Trial quality was assessed using the modified Jadad scale. The data was using fixed-effects and random-effects models with mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Ten RCTs with a total of 894 patients were screened. The results showed that operative was superior to nonoperative treatment regarding lower risk of re-rupture (P = 0.002) and shorter time for sick leave (P = 0.009) but inferior to nonoperative treatment regarding complication risks (P = 0.004). No significant difference was identified between the two methods regarding the number of patients who successfully returned to pre-injury sports (P = 0.30). Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in relation to scar adhesion (P < 0.00001), superficial infection (P = 0.05), and sensibility disturbance (P = 0.0003). However, no significant differences were found between the two interventions in relation to deep infection (P = 0.22), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (P = 0.14), and extreme Achilles tendon lengthening (P = 0.31). Little consensus was obtained in the functional recovery from current trials as a result of an inconsistent assessment system. Compared with conservative treatment, operative treatment can effectively reduce the risk of re-rupture but increase the probability of complications. The increased complication risk may be associated with open repair surgery. However, no sufficient evidence is available from current studies to support the belief that operation may lead to better functional recovery.
    International Orthopaedics 12/2011; 36(4):765-73. DOI:10.1007/s00264-011-1431-3 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture.
    Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery 04/2012; 29(2):291-9, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.cpm.2012.01.004 · 0.56 Impact Factor
Show more


47 Reads
Available from