An hour less sleep is a risk factor for childhood conduct problems.
ABSTRACT There is emerging evidence that sleep problems in childhood may have enduring consequences. Studies using parental and objective sleep measurement suggest that sleep difficulties in children may be associated with behavioural problems. However, the findings using objective sleep measures are inconsistent and it is not clear what aspects of sleep quality are associated with daytime behavioural difficulties. The aim of this paper is to identify which behavioural symptoms are best predicted by actigraphic sleep measures in a general population sample of school-aged children aged 6-11 years.
Actigraphy was used to measure sleep in 91 typically developing children aged 6-11 years for 6 days. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A series of multivariate linear regression models were computed to analyse the effects of sleep on SDQ subscales.
Sleep did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity. After controlling for age and gender, sleep accounted for 18% of the variance in conduct problems. Only actual sleep time in minutes made a significant contribution to the model.
A child who sleeps 1 h less than the average child may be at risk of conduct problems. Clinicians should consider routinely screening for sleep difficulties when assessing children with conduct problems.
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ABSTRACT: Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51 % male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.Journal of Youth and Adolescence 08/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10964-014-0169-9 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although sleep problems are associated with negative outcomes among adolescents, studies have not focused on sleep disorder symptoms among adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods and how sleep problems may be related to two factors common in those environments: hopelessness and exposure to violence. This study used data from the longitudinal Mobile Youth Survey (MYS; N = 11,838, 49 % female, 93 % African-American) to examine trajectories of sleep problems by age (10-18 years) among impoverished adolescents as a function of gender, feelings of hopelessness, and exposure to violence. The results indicate that sleep problems associated with traumatic stress decline with age, with four notable distinctions. First, the steepest decline occurs during the early adolescent years. Second, the rate of decline is steeper for males than for females. Third, exposure to violence impedes the rate of decline for all adolescents, but more dramatically for females than for males. Fourth, the rate of decline is smallest for adolescents with feelings of hopelessness who also had been exposed to violence. To explore the generalizability of these results to other types of sleep disorders, we analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a subsample of 14- and 15-year-old MYS participants (N = 263, 49 % female, 100 % African-American) who completed a sleep symptoms questionnaire. Four results from the cross-sectional analysis extend the findings of the longitudinal analysis. First, the cross-sectional results showed that symptoms of apnea, insomnia, nightmares, and restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (RLS/PLMD), as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as a function of hopelessness. Second, symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and nightmares, as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as function of exposure to violence. Third, symptoms of insomnia and RLS/PLMD are greater under conditions of combined hopelessness and exposure to violence than for either condition alone. Fourth, symptoms of RLS/PLMD are worst for females who have been exposed to violence and experience hopelessness. Overall, the findings suggest that hopelessness and exposure to violence have negative independent and multiplicative effects on adolescent sleep, particularly for females. Understanding the causal factors associated with inadequate sleep in impoverished adolescents is important for three reasons. First, sleep is an important aspect of adolescent development. Second, inadequate sleep has severe consequences for adolescent morbidity, mortality, and overall quality of life. Third, impoverished adolescents are at the most severe risk for poor outcomes, and improvement in their sleep may produce large gains.Journal of Youth and Adolescence 07/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10964-014-0160-5 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is a problem for many children; however, it remains an underevaluated factor when assessing behavior. The purpose of the current article is to explore sleep problems in children, as well as the effects that disrupted sleep patterns have on child behavior. The authors recommend strategies to guide the assessment of sleep and improve children's sleep quality. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 52 (10), 27-32.].Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 10/2014; 52(10):27-32. DOI:10.3928/02793695-20140916-01 · 0.87 Impact Factor