Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002-2006

Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Disease, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.57). 02/2011; 59(2):327-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03271.x
Source: PubMed


To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in older adults and whether sociodemographic factors modify these associations.
Approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years (2002-2006) were abstracted. A single-year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization was estimated according to state for each influenza season; an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age was observed for each influenza season. State- and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, older adults, or both using mixed effects models.
U.S. population, 2002 to 2006.
U.S. population aged 65 and older.
State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and older adults were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively.
Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the older adults themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in older adults.
Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for older adults and has the potential to be more beneficial to older adults than the existing policy of preventing influenza by vaccinating older adults themselves.

Download full-text


Available from: Elena N Naumova, Oct 04, 2015
10 Reads
  • Source
    • "Mathematical modelling in addition to a small number of clinical and epidemiological studies reveal that the best societal use of influenza [110] [111] or pneumococcal vaccines could be to target pre-school or school children as the main transmitters groups [82 ,83], in addition to or instead of elderly people or other high-risk groups in whom vaccine efficacy is often poor [112] [54] [25]. This has been demonstrated as being effective for community-dwelling elderly populations [110] [111] [113] [83] [82] and in those living in institutional settings [114] [115]. Shifting of vaccine targets from the most vulnerable groups to the high transmitter or to the best responder group to vaccination would represent a substantial societal challenge in view of the tension between individual rights and public health [116]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccines are powerful public health tools that have been of tremendous benefit in protecting vulnerable populations worldwide from many pathogens. However, vaccine- preventable diseases still remain a considerable burden and this is particularly true among aging and aged populations in industrialized countries. The predicted demographic shift in the population landscape towards an ever-increasing aging population and the evidence suggesting that older individuals mount less-than optimal immune response to vaccination have raised the question of improving vaccine responses in older individuals. This review presents recent progress in the understanding at the cellular and molecular levels of age related immune decline and strategies to translate current knowledge into the development of immunization strategies to promote healthy aging, keeping older members of society autonomous and independent.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 09/2013; 13(20). DOI:10.2174/15680266113136660181 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It is estimated that as many as 50% of the cases of influenza in the elderly are caused by exposure to grandchildren (Towers and Feng, 2012) and that grandparents who are caregivers for young children have extremely high rates of influenza and pneumonia (Cohen et al., 2011a). Consistent with this observation, both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination of children have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of infection, hospitalization, and deaths in the elderly (Monto et al., 1969; Whitney et al., 2003; Hsu et al., 2009; Loeb et al., 2010; Cohen et al., 2011b). In addition, indirect measures of controlling infections in children (e.g., school closures) have a pronounced effect of decreasing disease rates in the general population, including the elderly (Earn et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccination remains the most effective prophylactic intervention for infectious disease in the healthcare professional's toolkit. However, the efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines decrease with age. This becomes most apparent after an individual reaches 65-70 years old, and results from complex changes in the immune system that occur during aging. As such, new vaccine formulations and strategies that can accommodate age-related changes in immunity are required to protect this expanding population. Here, we summarize the consequences of immunosenescence on vaccination and how novel vaccination strategies can be designed to accommodate the aging immune system. We conclude that current vaccination protocols are not sufficient to protect our aging population and, in some cases, are an inefficient use of healthcare resources. However, researchers and clinicians are developing novel vaccination strategies that include modifying who and when we vaccinate and capitalize on existing vaccines, in addition to formulating new vaccines specifically tailored to the elderly in order to remedy this deficiency.
    Frontiers in Immunology 06/2013; 4:171. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00171
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccines against microbial diseases have improved the health of millions of people. In the next decade and beyond, many conceptual and technological scientific advances offer extraordinary opportunities to expand the portfolio of immunisations against viral and bacterial diseases and to pioneer the first vaccines against human parasitic and fungal diseases. Scientists in the public and private sectors are motivated as never before to bring about these innovations in immunisation. Many societal factors threaten to compromise realisation of the public health gains that immunisation can achieve in the next decade and beyond--understanding these factors is imperative. Vaccines are typically given to healthy individuals and safety issues loom high on the list of public concerns. The public needs to regain confidence in immunisation and trust the organisations responsible for the research, development, and implementation of vaccines. In the past, by use of a judicious amalgam of knowledge and empiricism, successful vaccines were largely developed by microbiologists who identified antigens that induced immune responses to conserved pathogen components. In the future, vaccines need to be developed against deadly diseases for which this strategy is often not feasible because of the extensive antigenic variability of relevant pathogens. High microbial diversity means that immunity after natural infection is often ineffective for prevention of disease on subsequent exposure, for example in HIV infection and malaria. Additionally, vaccines need to be generated to protect the people who are most vulnerable because of age or underlying diseases. Thus, in the future, a much deeper understanding of the immunological challenges--including the diversifying role of host genetics and environmental factors, leading perhaps to more personalised approaches-will be the touchstone for rational design and development of adjuvants that result in novel safe and effective vaccines.
    The Lancet 06/2011; 378(9788):348-59. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60407-8 · 45.22 Impact Factor
Show more