Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets Mimicking Pseudohypoparathyroidism-Case Report

Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey.
Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 12/2010; 2(4):173-5. DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.v2i4.173
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) is a disorder biochemically characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, normal or decreased serum calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate concentrations, secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased serum 25−hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. In stage 1 VDDR, urinary amino acid and phosphate excretion are normal with minimal or no findings of rickets on radiographs. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is an inherited disorder characterized by end−organ resistance to parathormone (PTH). VDDR occasionally resembles PHP type 2 in clinical presentation and biochemical features, creating difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these two entities. Here we report an infant diagnosed with VDDR. In addition to inadequate vitamin D intake, usage of antiepileptic drugs (AED) may have led to the worsening of the vitamin D deficiency. The patient presented with a history of febrile convulsions, for which he received phenobarbital treatment. The initial findings of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and normal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, mimicking PHP 2, responded well to vitamin D and oral Ca treatment with normalization of serum Ca, phosphorus (P), ALP and PTH levels
Conflict of interest:None declared.

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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe respective roles of hypocalcemia and intracerebral calcifications in the occurrence of various neurological manifestations in hypoparathyroidism is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, therapeutic and prognostic implications are important.Objectives We analyze the neurological clinical aspects observed in hypoparathyroidism and correlate them to the biological calcium abnormality and radiological CT scan findings. We also compare these results with data reported in the idiopathic form of striatopallidodentate calcinosis.PatientsThe neurological clinical, CT scan findings and outcome have been retrospectively studied in patients recruited during 13 years (2000–2012) for neurological features associated with hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism.ResultsTwelve patients with primary hypoparathyroidism (n = 5), secondary to thyroidectomy (n = 4) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 3) were studied. The sex-ratio was 1 and mean age was 39 years. All patients had a tetany, 60% had epilepsy, associated in one patient with “benign” intracranial hypertension; 50% had behavioral changes. Response to calcium therapy was excellent for all these events. Moderate cognitive deficit was noted in three patients (25%), parkinsonism in two patients and hyperkinetic movement disorders in one other. These events were not responsive to calcium therapy and were more common in cases of extensive brain calcifications and in patients who had pseudohypoparathroidism.CommentsThis study suggests that, in patients with hypoparathyroidism, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders are induced by hypocalcemia and reversible after its correction. Cognitive and extrapyramidal impairment seem to be related to the progressive extension of intracerebral calcification, particularly in patients with a late diagnosis. In patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, this finding is different because of the contribution of other factors, specific to this disease.
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The term pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) indicates a group of heterogeneous disorders whose common feature is represented by impaired signaling of various hormones (primarily PTH) that activate cAMP-dependent pathways via Gsα protein. The two main subtypes of PHP, PHP type Ia, and Ib (PHP-Ia, PHP-Ib) are caused by molecular alterations within or upstream of the imprinted GNAS gene, which encodes Gsα and other translated and untranslated products. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search was used to identify the available studies (main query terms: pseudohypoparathyroidism; Albright hereditary osteodystrophy; GNAS; GNAS1; progressive osseous heteroplasia). The most relevant studies until February 2011 have been included in the review. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Despite the first description of this disorder dates back to 1942, recent findings indicating complex epigenetic alterations beside classical mutations at the GNAS complex gene, pointed out the limitation of the actual classification of the disease, resulting in incorrect genetic counselling and diagnostic procedures, as well as the gap in our actual knowledge of the pathogenesis of these disorders. This review will focus on PHP type I, in particular its diagnosis, classification, treatment, and underlying molecular alterations.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2011; 96(10):3020-30. DOI:10.1210/jc.2011-1048 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type-1b is a hereditary disorder of clinical hypoparathyroidism without AHO phenotype, characterized by blunted nephrogenous cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response to exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH). Here we report a young adult presenting with hypocalcemic tetany with raised PTH levels. His urinary cAMP response to exogenous PTH (recombinant 1-34) was blunted; however, phosphaturic response was normal.
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