Improved Motion Perception and Impaired Spatial Suppression following Disruption of Cortical Area MT/V5
ABSTRACT As stimulus size increases, motion direction of high-contrast patterns becomes increasingly harder to perceive. This counterintuitive behavioral result, termed "spatial suppression," is hypothesized to reflect center-surround antagonism-a receptive field property ubiquitous in sensory systems. Prior research proposed that spatial suppression of motion signals is a direct correlate of center-surround antagonism within cortical area MT. Here, we investigated whether human MT/V5 is indeed causally involved in spatial suppression of motion signals. The key assumption is that a disruption of neural mechanisms that play a critical role in spatial suppression could allow these normally suppressed motion signals to reach perceptual awareness. Thus, our hypothesis was that a disruption of MT/V5 should weaken spatial suppression and, consequently, improve motion perception of large, moving patterns. To disrupt MT/V5, we used offline 1 Hz transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-a method that temporarily attenuates normal functioning of the targeted cortex. Early visual areas were also targeted as a control site. The results supported our hypotheses and showed that disruption of MT/V5 improved motion discrimination of large, moving stimuli, presumably by weakening surround suppression strength. This effect was specific to MT/V5 stimulation and contralaterally presented stimuli. Evidently, the critical neural constraints limiting motion perception of large, high-contrast stimuli involve MT/V5. Additionally, our findings mimic spatial suppression deficits that are observed in several patient populations and implicate impaired MT/V5 processes as likely neural correlates for the reported perceptual abnormalities in the elderly, patients with schizophrenia and those with a history of depression.
SourceAvailable from: Shaleeza Kaderali[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: rTMS with an off-line cTBS protocol)of visual areas hMT+ and V1 in the human brain•Deficits in chromatic and achromatic motion perception 11 mins after rTMS of hMT+•No deficits for stimulus detection after stimulation of either area•hMT+ mediates the perception of motion of chromatic and achromatic stimuli but not color detectionBrain Stimulation 11/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.001 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that normal aging is typically accompanied by impairment in the ability to perceive the global (overall) motion of visual objects in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between age-related changes in the ability to perceive translational global motion (up vs. down) and important factors such as the spatial extent (size) over which movement occurs and how cluttered the moving elements are (density). We used random dot kinematograms (RDKs) and measured motion coherence thresholds (% signal elements required to reliably discriminate global direction) for young and older adults. We did so as a function of the number and density of local signal elements, and the aperture area in which they were displayed. We found that older adults' performance was relatively unaffected by changes in aperture size, the number and density of local elements in the display. In young adults, performance was also insensitive to element number and density but was modulated markedly by display size, such that motion coherence thresholds decreased as aperture area increased (participants required fewer local elements to move coherently to determine the overall image direction). With the smallest apertures tested, young participants' motion coherence thresholds were considerably higher (~1.5 times worse) than those of their older counterparts. Therefore, when RDK size is relatively small, older participants were actually better than young participants at processing global motion. These findings suggest that the normal (disease-free) aging process does not lead to a general decline in perceptual ability and in some cases may be visually advantageous. The results have important implications for the understanding of the consequences of aging on visual function and a number of potential explanations are explored. These include age-related changes in spatial summation, reduced cortical inhibition, neural blur and attentional resource allocation.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 08/2014; 6:199. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00199 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pursuit-pursuing illusion is a visual illusion where a circular object placed in the centre of a radial pattern consisting of thin sectors is seen to move in the pursuit eye movement direction. The present study investigates the role of the surrounding texture, replacing the sectors with random dots or stripes in an orientation that was orthogonal, parallel or oblique to the pursuit direction. The experiments demonstrate that the acquired illusory effect was large for the orthogonal stripes. However, each surrounding texture produces a relatively smaller effect than the radial sectors. These results suggest that a hypothesis based on the property of a centre-surround relative-motion detector cannot fully explain the illusion and that the radial stimulus structure itself plays an important role in this illusion.Perception 01/2014; 5(1):20-40. DOI:10.1068/i0597 · 1.11 Impact Factor